Quantity Take Off or QTO is a well known project estimating company serving to the contractors, home builders, architects, design- build firms and sub contractor trade. We are providing estimating service since 2002 with a great chronicle of success.

This estimating spreadsheet is specifically
created for designing truss. By using this spreadsheet one can design light
gage truss on the basis of AISI S100/SI-10 & ER-4943P.

The following design criterion is required for truss analysis.

The
intermediate, finite element analysis contains shear deformations with E &
G equivalent to 29500 ksi & 11300 ksi.

There are various rotations at similar joint of web to chord,
since web pinned to continued chord.

Top
chord shall be affixed to sheathing prior to inclusion of vertical load.

This spreadsheet will be useful for defining joint deflections
with finite

To download the spreadsheet, click on the following link.www.finesoftware.eu

This is another
useful presentation from Parag Pal. The video shows the detailed information on
Center Line Method.

Center line
method is specifically applied for walls of equivalent cross sections. Here,
the total centre line length is multiplied with breadth and depth of relevant
item to determine the total quantity at once.

After the cross
walls or partitions or verandah walls are attached with main wall, the centre
line length becomes curtailed by half of breadth for every junction.

Such junction or
joints should be cautiously taken into consideration at the time of measuring
total centre line length. The method generates most precise estimates rapidly.

Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co

This construction video tutorial will teach you how to
design a building with the allocation of different rooms with different sizes.

The video is supported with a detailed table that
includes room names, standard area of the building floor, common building,
minimum floor area etc.

For Dining room, standard area of the building floor
should be 20 to 28 square meter, common building area should be 20 square
meter, minimum floor area should be 13.5 square meter.

For Bed room, standard area of the building floor
should be 15 to 25 square meter, common building area should be 15 to 20 square
meter, minimum floor area should be 11 square meter.

For guest room, standard area of the building floor
should be 9 to 10.5 square meter, common building area should be 15 to 20
square meter, minimum floor area should be 7 square meter.

For kitchen, standard area of the building floor
should be 7 to 9 square meter, common building area should be 7 to 8.5 square
meter, minimum floor area should be 5.5 square meter.

For store room, standard area of the building floor
should be 7 to 9 square meter, common building area should be 5.5 to 6 square
meter, minimum floor area should be 5.5 square meter.

For latrine and attached bath, standard area of the
building floor should be 4.5 square meter, common building area should be 4.5
square meter, minimum floor area should be 2.8 square meter.

For latrine area without attached
bath, standard area of the building floor should be 1.2 to 1.5 square meter,
common building area should be 1.2to 1.5 square meter, minimum floor area
should be 1.5 square meter.

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This construction video is the part 2 series of
retaining wall design. In this video, you will learn various aspects of
counterfort retaining wall along with the details of stability checks.

The video includes brief calculation made for
cantilever and counterfort wall.

In the counterfort retaining wall, the step and the base slab
are connected unitedly with counterforts at proper gaps.

As a consequence of provision of counterforts, the vertical
stem together with the heel slab performs as continuous slab, contrary to the
cantilevers of cantilever retaining wall.

They are inexpensive for height in excess of about 6 m.

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This construction
video provides some useful tricks on how to design or find out the most
economical segment toward rectangular open channel.

Open Channel Flow is described as fluid flow
containing a free surface open to the atmosphere. The instances are streams,
rivers and culverts not flowing full.

The video provides
solution to the following problem :-

problem:--Find the most economical X-section of a
rectangular channel to carry 0.3𝑚^3/sec of water when
channel bed slope is 1:1000. assume chezy’s constant, C=60

In the solution
provided, chezy’s formula as well as some condition of economical section is
applied to obtain the size of the channel.

The Chezy formula is applicable to pipes having
turbulent flow. In fluid dynamics, the Chézy formula defines the mean flow
velocity of steady, turbulent open channel flow.

The
formula is given as

• {\displaystyle v=C{\sqrt
{R\,i}},\,}where • {\displaystyle v}ν denotes average velocity [m/s], • {\displaystyle C}C denotes Chezy's coefficient [m½/s], • {\displaystyle R}R is the hydraulic radius (~ water depth)
[m], and • {\displaystyle i}i is the bottom slope [m/m].

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This
construction video tutorial provides the demonstration Peikko DSA Punching
Reinforcement. It belongs to a Transverse Reinforcement System for
Cast-in-Place Concrete. It is specifically designed to improve the strength of
punching shear concerning elevated concrete slabs and slabs on grade devoid of
raising their thickness.

DSA rails
consist of steel double-headed DSA Studs welded to a steel shape. The steel
shape ensures the exact spacing and placing of the studs throughout their set
up in concrete as per ASTM-A1044 standard. It should be used for both top and
bottom installation.

Peikko DSA Punching
Reinforcement offers an easy and consistent solution toward punching and shear
failure which may happen in elevated concrete slabs, slabs on grade and footings.

If DSA
Punching Reinforcement is applied in elevated slabs like reinforced concrete
slabs or post-tensioned slabs, DSA Punching Reinforcement system disregards the
requirement for column capitals. Therefore, forming and concrete costs are
minimized significantly.

DSA reinforced cast-in-place
elevated slabs are designed slimmer to minimize the entire construction height.
It leads to huge savings in construction and running costs. The DSA system also
provides a ceiling with uninterrupted clearance facilitating adaptability and
simplicity of planning and installation of building services.

The
fabrication process for DSA studs is done with low carbon steel grades C1010
through C1020. DSA Punching Reinforcement system adheres to the standard
speciﬁcation for steel stud assemblies for the shear reinforcement of concrete
ASTM A-1044. It should be designed according to ACI 318-14 and CSA A23.3-14
which make it relevant in North America and Middle East.

Punching
Reinforcement systems are also employed in foundations to curtail the thickness
of footings, pile caps and slabs on grade. Other applications range from DSA
rails are utilized as shear reinforcement in beams, walls and other concrete
elements.

To get more
information, click on the following link.www.peikkousa.com

Shallow foundation is generally described as foundation that
contains founding level below 3m from ground surface. Alternatively, when the
breadth of the lower most part of the foundation is more than the depth of the
lower most part of the foundation from the uppermost of the soil, i.e. Ground
Level then it is defined as a Shallow Foundation. It transmits building loads
to the earth adjacent to the surface. Shallow foundations comprise of spread
footing foundations, mat-slab foundations, slab-on-grade foundations, pad
foundations, rubble trench foundations and earthbag foundations.

Pad foundation stands
for the foundation that is specifically developed for retaining concentrated
loads out of a single point load like structural columns. Pad foundations are specifically
designed to provide support to individual or multiple columns, scattering the
load to the ground underneath. They are usually square or rectangular in plan,
the plan area is defined by the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. The
shape in plan will be determined by the arrangement of the columns and the load
will be transmitted into the soil.

The thickness of the slab should be adequate to make sure
that distribution of the load is perfect. The top of the pad should have been
sloping (i.e. the pad is denser in the centre as compared to it is at the
edge). It provides a cost-effective solution, though there are construction
issues which are associated with casting the slope.

Strip foundation is
utilized to provide support to a line of loads like load-bearing walls. As for
example, closely-placed columns deliver the imperfect application of pad
foundation and strip foundation may be a good choice.

Raft foundation comprises of a concrete slab which
expands over the entire loaded area in order that loads from whole structure
are expanded over a broader area that results in minimizing of the stress of
foundation soils. Besides, raft foundation is useful for resisting differential
settlement.

This construction video is
recorded on design loads. Design loads are essential while designing any
building or civil structure. One can learn types of design loads and it’s
various categories. You will also be familiar with dead loads values with
adherence to the IS code 875-1987 part-1.

In architecture and
engineering term, design load stands for the highest amount of stress that a
structure has to withstand. Weight is one of the most important factors that
should be taken into consideration for making calculation. Beside, weight,
design load calculations should also include other types of forces that a
structure has to undergo.

As for instance, bridges and
tall buildings should have the capability to withstand strong winds as well as
supporting their own weight along with the weight of people and objects that
are on them or within them.

Perfect calculation of
design load is very important to ensure that a structure is secured. If the
design load is not computed, stability of structures, or even segments of
structures, can be hampered. Unstable structure may collapse which can be
deadly.

Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This construction video tutorial will provide detailed
guidelines on how to provide perfect clear cover in reinforcement concrete
structure.

With the intension of safeguarding the reinforcement
from corrosion as well as arranging fire resistance to bars implanted in
concrete, clear cover is set for Reinforced Concrete Structures.

Clear cover stands for the distance among C.G of
reinforcement bars and bottom most point of concrete.

The thickness of cover is dependent on ecological
conditions and nature of structural member.

The depth of concrete cover is calculated by applying
a cover meter.

The clear cover that should be provided is determined
by Indian Standards. IS 456:2000.

Watch following youtube video to learn the complete process :-

Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Concrete
Retaining Wall Design: Before starting, initially, we should verify the
constancy of the retaining wall. Besides, verification should be done for
overturning and sliding prior to continue with the design.

The bearing
under the foundation should also be examined. If the soil provides support to
the wall, bearing pressure below the foundation of wall shall be under the
acceptable bearing capacity.

To start with,
you should inspect the retaining wall and determine the bending moments and
shear forces with the use of an analysis software like SAP2000 or PROKON or any
other software or with calculations by hand. If there are dissimilarities like
steps in the retaining wall and the emphasis is given on stress variation of
the wall, you can utilize software like SAP2000 or ANSIS.

Calculations by hand can be
performed for basic retaining walls which do not contain lots of complications.
As for instance, cantilever retaining wall is examined by making its behavior
simple. You can imagine the boundary condition "fixed" at base to get
the bending moments and shear forces of the wall. Once the wall forces are
detected, you can get the forces of the base of the wall. The most suitable
process will be applying a software to locate the bending moments and shear
forces.

The
types of external loads, operating on building and other structures, are
categorized as the following :-

1. Static loads
belong to the forces which are applied sluggishly and then turns out to be
almost constant.

2. One instance is the weight, or dead load associated with a
floor or roof system. 3. Dynamic loads fluctuate with time. They comprise of
repeated and impact loads. 4. Repeated loads are forces which are used several times.
These types of loads can make a difference in the magnitude, and occasionally
also in the sense, of the internal forces. A good example is an off-balance
motor.

5. Impact loads stand for forces through which energy is
occupied in a short timespan by a structure or its components time. An instance
is the falling of a heavy weight on a floor slab, or the shock wave emerged out
an explosion striking the walls and roof of a building. 6. External forces are also categorized as distributed and
concentrated. 7. Uniformly distributed loads belong to a distributed load
that contains a constant value like 1kN/m. It’s magnitude stays uniform all
through the length. Uniformly distributed load is generally denoted by W and is
stated as intensity of udl over the beam, slab etc. The instance of this load
is dead weight of a rolled-steel I beam.

8.
Concentrated loads belong to forces containing such a small contact area that
is omitted corresponding to the whole surface area of the supporting member. As
for instance a beam supported on a girder can be taken, for all practical
purposes, a concentrated load on the girder. 9. Another common category for external forces which are
labeled as axial, eccentric, and torsional. 10. An axial load pertains to a force whose resultant goes
over the centroid of a section under consideration and stands upright to the
plane of the section. 11. An eccentric load stands for a force that stands upright
to the plane of the section under consideration but not going through the
centroid of the section, therefore bending the supporting member.

Parag Pal, the most promising civil engineer, has
provided some useful tips for making rate analysis concerning plain cement
concrete (PCC) through an excel based spreadsheet. P.C.C
alias plain cement concreate is a useful construction material that is formed
by mixing in proportion of the cement (usually portland cement), aggregate
(coarse or fine ),sand and water. It is normally utilized like a binding
material. Pcc is robust in compression but feeble in the tension and shear. It
is mostly found in foundation work and flooring in building.

PCC is mainly used for following purposes

1. It is applied like a protective layer for the RCC above to
facilitate water from the RCC not being immersed by the earth below.

2. Arranges a base for the concrete as well as facilitates the workers to set
out the structure above in an efficient manner

3. Performs as a cover to reinforced cement concrete i.e. protect against
corrosion of steel bars in footings

Each construction project is allocated into number of
activities. Each activity contains various types of civil or construction
works. Rate analysis is necessary for removing cost of construction, material
planning, labour and equipment allocation in the scheduling etc.

You can’t download the spreadsheet but make necessary
modification in the spreadsheet online as per your database. Only the figure in
given in red color can be changed and the result will be reflected to all the
cells.

Reinforced Cement
Concrete column is a part and parcel of RCC frame structured building.

Reinforced concrete foundations are designed on the
basis of column loads and moments at base and the soil data.

It belongs to a
vertical member that delivers loads from slab and beam directly to succeeding
soil.

The entire building rests on columns. The collapsing
of the most of the buildings occurs because of column failure. Beside design
errors, substandard construction practice also leads to failure of column. So,
it is mostly crucial to have a clear & perfect idea on the construction
process of the RCC column.

In order to buildup RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Column,
the following four stages of works are essential :-.

1. Column layout work
2. Column reinforcement work
3. Column formwork, and
4. Pouring concrete into column.

To learn the complete process for RCC Column Design
with foundation, go through the following link.onlinecivilforum.com

By going through the following
construction video, you can learn the tips for obtaining formula toward full
super elevation of highway or road. This video is very useful for land
surveying.

Full super-elevation stands for the amount with which
the external edge of a curve located at a road or railway is grounded directly
above the inner edge. Its units range from meter/meter or feet/feet.

Another definition of super-elevation is the vertical
distance among the heights of inward and external edges of highway pavement or
railroad rails.

In order to neutralize the
consequence of centrifugal force as well as decrease the trend of vehicle to
overturn and to slide laterally outsides, pavement outer edge is elevated in
regard to inner edge. Consequently, delivering a transverse slope is called
Super elevation.

The formula is used for full super elevation = h =
Bv2/gR

Here B denotes breath of the road, v stands for speed
of vehicle, g stands for acceleration (that is 9.8 m/s2) and R stands for
radius of circular curve.

To know the detailed process, go through the following
video.

Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co

This construction video tutorial will teach you how to
estimate the steel quantity in column footing with bar bending schedule.

Column Footing stands for an independent footing or
foundation under a column or either equivalent member for delivering the
concentrated load by means of uniformly loads to the soil underneath in order
that the bearing capacity of the soil is not surpassed and differential
settling does not take place. The footing may come in square, rectangular or
circular in plan.

The footing may be constructed with brick masonry, stone,
R.C.C., steel grill-age etc on the basis of the load to be transferred as well
as the bearing capacity of soil. As a result of low bending strength, the
footings built with brick, stone or plain concrete need extensive depth to bear
heavy loads safely.

The depth of plain concrete footing is minimized
significantly with the arrangement of reinforcements at its base to withstand
tensile stresses. R.C.C. column footings may com in circular, rectangular or
square in plan. The footing is reinforced both-ways using mild steel ribbed
bars which are arranged at exact angles to one another at similar distances
apart.

Read more
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

This construction video tutorial will demonstrate huge lists
of competitive exam notes which are very useful for civil engineering PO exams,
state civil engineering exams, PSC etc. These notes are hand written.

These notes can be useful for environmental engineering,
irrigation engineering, design of reinforced concrete structure, steel
structure, structural analysis, surveying etc.

To learn the detailed process, go through the following video.

Read more
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

Rolled steel sections are considered as the useful
materials in steel construction. These are accessible in different forms.

Steel is one of the most vital building materials in
construction industry. It has diverse applications.

On the basis of their utilization, various steel
members are manufactured in the factories. The continuous casting molds devoid
of any joints are used to cast rolled steel sections. Given below, details of
various shapes or forms of rolled steel sections.

Rolled Angle Sections: Angle sections are built in “L”
shape. It comprises of two legs. Some angle sections include legs containing
equivalent dimensions which are described as equal angle sections and some
include dissimilar legs which are described as unequal angle sections.

Angle sections are mostly utilized for roof truss
constructions and for filler joist floors.

Equal angle sections can be accessed with 20 mm x 20
mm x 3 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm x 25 mm along with their equivalent weights as 9 N
and 736 N per meter length respectively.

Unequal angle sections can be accessed with 30 mm x 20
mm x 3 mm to 200 mm x 150 mm x 18 mm along with 11 and 469 N per meter length
weight correspondingly.

Rolled Channel Sections: The channel section or C-
section comprises of two equal flanges associated with web at both ends.
Channel sections are widely utilized in steel framed structures.

They are presented with different sizes which vary
from 100 mm x 45 mm to 400 mm x 100 mm. Equivalent unit weights belong to 58 N
and 494 N per meter length relatively.

This construction video tutorial focuses on concrete mix
design. In this video grades are taken as M 7.5, M10, M15, M20 and mix ratios
for cement, sand and aggregate are taken as 1:4:8, 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3. The
amount of water is required for amalgamating concrete in 50 kg cement.

Concrete mix design refers to the method of choosing
the appropriate components (cement, sand and coarse aggregates) as well as
their relevant proportions with the purpose of developing concrete by
maintaining specific minimum strength & durability.

Objective of mix design To make sure that the optimal ratios of the constituent
materials is maintained to satisfy the need of the structure. To obtain the preferred minimum strength in the hardened
stage.

To obtain the needed minimum strength in the hardened stage. To obtain the preferred strength in the specified environment
conditions To form concrete as inexpensively as possible.

Read more
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co