## Monday, August 21, 2017

### Some useful tips to determine the monthly rental value of your structure

From this construction video tutorial, we can gather knowledge on how to make the valuation of monthly rent concerning a building that has been developed on a land.
There are two types of rents like net rent and gross rent. Net rent does not include taxes associated with land or construction. Gross rent normally includes these types of taxes.
As for example, here, the value of plot is taken as 4,00,000 rupees (inclusive of all taxes).
The value of structure is taken as 4,70,000
As per government law, 5% of land value and 6% of construction value can be taken as return in one year.
Based on the above figure, the monthly rent of the building should be determined.
Therefore, the annual rent should be as follow :-
4,00,000 x 5% = 20,000/Rupees
Annual rent of structure = 4,70,000 x 6% = 28,200/Rupees
So, total annual rent will be = 28,200 + 20,000 = 48,200/Rupees
Therefore, monthly annual rent will be = 48,200/12 = 4017/Rupees
Now, if you want to find out the time period when total investment for land and structure will be recovered, apply the following formula :-
4,00,000 + 4,70,000 = 8,70,000/4017 = 216.58 months
To covert the value to year
216.58/12 = 18 years.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Saturday, August 19, 2017

### 6 helpful tips to avoid common construction delays

Construction area is a risky and high alert area. Any minor injury or accident can happen for a moment of distraction. Sometimes construction works get delayed and as a result the cost and problems create. There are many reasons of this delay; it can be happen for the communication gap, wrong planning, poor management or the unwanted raised blockers. Whatever may be the reason the result is same, the unwanted delay. This article is an overview of the problems and their solutions.

Most of the construction projects go out of control and costs back for the inability to finish the work on time. So it is important to be in schedule for maintaining the budget, but the industry is full of uncertainties so it is not possible. There are few tricks that can be used by the managers to avoid the crippling delays. The tricks are described below:

1. Minimize construction delays and blockers: The two types of problems prevent projects from finishing on time are delays and blockers. A construction delay happens generally when the things don’t go with plans; and as the construction is sometimes consecutive, it is often unavoidable. The cause of delay can be the absence of the subcontractor in the case of longer time work or delayed material shipments. Blockers are not like delays as it is a work whose completion is needful before other tasks could be completed. The best thing of avoid delaying is careful planning and the blockers should be identified at first.

2. Improve your management method:Inefficient management is another big reason for any project failure. Project managers are given the responsible to create that kind of project plan which has all the necessary elements and also deliver the completed project by the deadline. Sao the construction manager has several responsibilities and has to coordinate with the labors and materials in the job site for completing the work on time.A manager becomes great only when he can do the work before time with the problems and blockers.

3. Plan, plan, plan:A great project plan can be done when the project manager is always updated with the planning and enable quickly diagnose potential challenges and solve problem instantly before any delay. Many contractors start their projects without clear timeline or prior communication etc. and it is a big mistake. The project should always contain with the details and variables to avoid the delays. A successful plan always has unforeseen circumstances, clear guideline to finish it in right time. The software like eSUB or other software options can maintain the project planning.

4. Assign clear roles and responsibilities:The commercial construction projects have contractors, employees, subcontractors, managers and other peoples. And for any kind of failure, each party is equally responsible. Avoiding critical tasks lead the projects in delay. By establishing roles, responsibilities and focusing on the goal, the unwanted delays can be avoided. To get buy-in from everyone before beginning any project plan is essential. By talking with all the key players in a project, the involvement of the members in the project can be seen.

5. Schedule contractors far in advance:Two co creators of HGTV’s hit TV-show Property Brothers, Drew and Jonathan Scott have launched a venture called Dream Homes that addresses the problem about the timing for settle down a new project. Bridget McMullin of McMullin Design Group also warned that the contractors, designers and architects often delayed their work for the setting of the first meeting. To avoid delays and costs, you need to determine the time and the contractors. To complete all the process from arranging meeting to choosing contactors and making schedules, you need 3 months. So it is always better to be active in doing this entire works.

6. Establish clear communication between parties: The poor communications between two parties can turn the little problems into big delays. In the certain created challenges it becomes crucial to contact directly between the contractors and project management team. So as a contractor you must quickly diagnose asses and communicate with all eth members to make a solution. A guide of timely project completion by Design Blendz shows the benefits of good communications. The active participation of all the employees makes any project successful and completed in time.

Though the construction project management software has made it easier than earlier to deliver the right updates from the site to all the key stakeholders but this should be maintained properly. This practice can bring everyone in the same page and the production of work can be done faster.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, August 18, 2017

### Safety Measures in Construction Site

Constructions sites are the place where risks are inevitable. The workers on the job site are exposed to various dangerous situations. Even a single miss of safety term can cause severe injuries, sometimes death. So, it is important to follow the safety tools to avoid life threatening problems. The effect of simple safety policy will bring in a calm and friendly working environment for the workers.
Following a safety precaution not only protects the workers from fatal consequences but also keeps builders away from legal issues raised because of the infringement in the safety term. The content discusses the basic site safety rules that every work site must follow. They are a simple set of rules offering results rooted deep in a problem free construction environment.
• The site manager must conduct a site meeting before the construction process starts. It should be attained by the entire work force, and the possible safety problems of the job site should be discussed to solve the existing problems.

• The site manager must conduct a site meeting before the construction process starts. It should be attained by the entire work force, and the possible safety problems of the job site should be discussed to solve the existing problems.
• The workers must keep the job site tidy, keeping aside the dangerous items that cause potential risks. The demolished materials like mortar, glass, hardcore and concrete should be dumped away from the working area. If it is not possible, they should be separated using fences.
• Every worker must put on the necessary safety protections to keep themselves unaffected if the worse situation comes. You must be accompanied by hard hats, gloves, heavy boots, and protection glasses during your work.
• Using right tool and machinery also comes under the building site safety policies. The machines should be in a working condition and must be maintained in a good way.
• Working at heights is another thing that is common in the construction field. Risks are also higher for those who are working above the usual height. To avoid risk related to fall, site instructor should check ladders and scaffolding prior to the job. Safety harness is another best option to ignore the problems related to working at heights.
• Banning on alcohol consumption on the job site is the rule strictly followed by the workers.
• Workers should be informed about the health problems caused by a prolonged work in hot, cold and wet environments. They cause a range of health risks, from dehydration to sun strokes.
• Every job site keeps the First Aid materials in an organized way that can avert any kind of inconvenience.
• Every worker must have clear knowledge of what to do if an emergency strikes. The work responsibility must be divided among workers so that they can take quick action to cut down the damages.
Maintaining a proper safety protocol is one of the important things in a construction work. Every building site must follow the rules as strictly as they are mentioned in the rule book. The infringement in the safety term can bring unnecessary legal issues and halt the construction work temporarily or permanently. The risk of life is the major thing to be concerned.

## Thursday, August 17, 2017

### Benefits of drones in construction

Drones are rapidly changing the industry scenario, especially in the fields of civil engineering and surveying. They are reaching the odd locations that are untouched by the human resource. The application of this technology, though, goes beyond these two names. They are strongly imprinting their values across the industry, from real estate to golfing. The achievements earned by this technology are countless, and they deal with toughest challenges with ease and bring out the productive result for the companies. The content explains in brief how they earned this unmatched reputation in the dynamic world.
Observation:
Navigating the difficult location in the construction field is no longer a tricky job. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are performing the job as skillfully as no one can do. It sends images of what it observes to the planning team.
The data sent by drones contain impressive details of the objects, including the smallest option. The 360 degree panorama views help civil engineers divide the work as per the priority basis. Operators also share these images in order to come up with a better plan. The data solve various complex issues like project timing, equipment needs and prevailing challenges of a construction.
Surveying:
Drones play major roles for surveying. They quite satisfyingly assist Geographical Information System (GIS) professionals. GIS is known for their services like locating boundaries of the property, subdividing land and surveying construction sites. No doubt to say, drones have already made loud noises for catering the same functions proficiently and flawlessly. They send still images of a construction map to a cloud-based storage from where authorities can access and assess the data to plan meticulously. Since the cameras and the distance can be regulated remotely, they rise above than natural and artificial obstacles.
Costing:
Drones are affordable and accurate, and this is why they are entering the industry at large. The benefits are countless and at the same time reliable. They accelerate the production, assess the present situation and help in figuring out the problem more efficiently than any other does. Traditionally, construction has been the manpower controlled field. With the introduction of this technology, the age-old thought starts getting obsolete. They use the human – resource team in a profitable way and cut down the unnecessary expenses.
Drones have already made their presence felt in the industry with offering profits more than expected. Getting real time data of the construction has become easier. Thus, it also solves many difficult challenges prevailing over the field.
However, there exist regulations, probable risks and service options to take into consideration prior to launch a drone program.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Wednesday, August 16, 2017

### Various types of tests conducted to verify the quality of aggregates in road work

Aggregate is a vital element in pavement construction. The load transfer capacity of pavements is significantly impacted by the aggregated. So, it is recommended to examine the aggregates comprehensively prior to utilize them in the construction site.
The aggregates should contain the properties like durable and long-lasting with perfect shape and size so that the pavement can function monolithically. Aggregates are evaluated for strength, toughness, solidity, shape, and water absorption.
In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, The following tests are conducted to check whether the aggregates are suitable to be utilized in pavement construction:

In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, The following tests are conducted to check whether the aggregates are suitable to be utilized in pavement construction:
1.CRUSHING TEST: Crushing under compressive stress is a model to check the eligibility of pavement material for getting passed or failed. A test is organized with IS: 2386 part-IV and applied to find out the crushing strength of aggregates. The aggregate crushing value offers a relevant measure of resistance to crushing under increasingly employed crushing load.
2.ABRASION TEST: Abrasion test is accomplished to examine the rigidity of aggregates as well as determine whether they can be used for various pavement construction works. Los Angeles abrasion test is mostly suitable for executing the hardness property and it is implemented in India (IS: 2386 part-IV).
3.IMPACT TEST: The aggregate impact test is accomplished to verify the resistance to impact of aggregates. Aggregates which have passed 12.5 mm sieve and conserved on 10 mm sieve is filled with a cylindrical steel cup having internal dia 10.2 mm and depth 5 cm that is connected to a metal base of impact testing machine. The material is covered with 3 layers where each layer is tamped for 25 numbers of blows. Metal hammer having weight 13.5 to 14 Kg is set to drop with a free fall of 38.0 cm through vertical guides and the test specimen is dependent on 15 numbers of blows.
4.SOUNDNESS TEST: Soundness test is conducted to analyze the resistance of aggregates against weathering action, by carrying out accelerated weathering test cycles. The Porous aggregates is dependent on freezing and thawing is liable to decompose beforehand. To determine the stability of such aggregates, they are dependent on a faster soundness test as stated in IS: 2386 part-V.
5.SHAPE TESTS: The particle shape of the aggregate mass is set with the proportion of rough and enlarged particles in it. Large and enlarged aggregates may be damaged to higher workability and stability of mixes.
6.SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION: The design of concrete and bituminous mixes is mostly based on the properties like specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates. The specific gravity of a solid refers to the proportion of its mass to that of an equivalent volume of distilled water at an indicated temperature. As the aggregates may include water-permeable voids, so the following two measures of specific gravity of aggregates are utilized:
1. Apparent specific gravity and
2. Bulk specific gravity.
7.BITUMEN ADHESION TEST: Bitumen is compatible with all general types of road aggregates on condition that they are dry and do not contain dust. Without water, no adhesion issue of bituminous construction occurs.
If the aggregate is wet and cold, the adhesion issue may happen. This issue can be handled by eliminating moisture from the aggregate by drying and raising the mixing temperature. Besides, the existence of water leads to removal of binder from the coated aggregates. This problem happens if bitumen mixture is absorbent to water.

## Monday, August 14, 2017

### The duties and responsibilities of civil engineers

The main objective of civil engineers is to plan, design, build, operate and maintain roads, bridges, dams, water supply schemes, sewerage systems, transportation, harbors, canals, dockyards, airports, railways, factories and large buildings.

Civil engineers generally render their jobs in the following sectors - structural, water resources, soil and foundation, transport, airport, town planning or construction.

Duties of an airport engineer:
a) Having expertize in producing designs for airports, hangars and control towers
b) Administers the construction, maintenance and repair of runways, considering the factors like weight, size and speed of aircraft
c. If any technical issue arises throughout construction, guides contractors to solve the issue

Duties of a geotechnical/soil engineer:
a. Examines projected construction sites to determine the conditions of soil and foundation with by initiating drilling and sampling programs
b. Monitors and takes part in job site and laboratory testing of soils, and ensures that test equipment and machinery is arranged perfectly
c. Creates reports of test results and suggests proposals for providing the solution to engineering issues given in test reports
d. Creates specifications of soil mixtures which can be utilized in roads, embankments and other construction, and measures and provides suggestions on the required slope at cuttings and the density of soil dams and retaining walls.

Duties of a harbor engineer
a. designs and manages the construction of harbour facilities like breakwaters, navigation aids, navigation channels, jetties, wharves, heavy-duty pavement surfaces, cargo sheds and bulk handling plants for grain, ore and other cargo
b. Makes sure that the designs are created according to the needs of safety and serviceability
c. Optimize the use of funds and materials to fulfill the safety and serviceability requirements.

Duties of a harbor engineer:
a) Having expertize in evaluating population and growth statistics and traffic patterns and volume to fulfill the needs of future project
b. Discusses with government officials and other specialists to make the design perfect and secured traffic systems
c. Reviews roadway and embankment design, the geometry of highway interchanges and the maintenance of facilities like culverts and overpasses.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, August 11, 2017

### Brief explanation of rebaring method in reinforced concrete construction

Rebaring technique in reinforced concrete construction stands for a process that is undertaken for fabricating and arranging of reinforcement bars perfectly based on the design and drawings intended for RCC works.
It is known fact that concrete is very durable in compression and weak in tension. The reinforcement bars alias rebars are strong in tension and these are combined with concrete to employ its tension property.
The responsible engineer produces the calculation of reinforcement bar for a reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us the particular details of the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape and size of each bar for each work.

The responsible engineer produces the calculation of reinforcement bar for a reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us the particular details of the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape and size of each bar for each work.
Various types of loads like tension, compression, lateral, horizontal and torsion are available which develop from pressure. To determine the strength of concrete, you have to find out whether concrete can withstand these loads or not.
The strength obtained by the R.C.C structure is based on the method and the techniques to be used for setting up the reinforcement bar. The reinforcement bars are primarily patterned over its surface to allow perfect bonding with the concrete.
Importance of Rebaring Technique in Reinforced Concrete Construction: The steel reinforcement usually is segregated into two categories i.e.
• Primary Reinforcement or Main Steel reinforcement
• Secondary reinforcement or distribution reinforcement
The objective of applying main steel reinforcement bars in R.C.C structures is to maintain resistance capacity for withstanding the entire design loads delivered to it. The secondary reinforcement bars are primarily used to maintain longevity and elegant look.
This reinforcement ensures to keep resistance for localized areas like limited cracking. These can also combat the stresses produced because of divergences in temperature.
The main bars which are used with indicated diameter, are bent at the ends. The stirrups belong to reinforcements which are arranged laterally, to place the main bars of the structural elements like beams and columns, in exact location.
The stirrups may come in various shapes like circular, square, rectangular, helical or diamond on the basis of the cross-section of the structural element. The reinforcement bars in the corners may appear as L – shaped.
The caging for the structural element to be decided should be perfectly fastened so as to keep the position of each bar unchanged throughout concreting. This is a check that should be always maintained throughout concreting otherwise it can hamper the stability of the structural member.
The rebars are primarily arranged at the junctions where the formwork of the structural element is closed and at the point where a new structural element should be fastened with the former one.