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Wednesday, September 20, 2017

How to choose pile foundation on the basis of cost versus other foundations for construction project

Get detailed information on how to choose the pile foundations on the basis of cost vs. other foundations for construction projects and factors which impact the cost of pile foundation.

Sometimes, it becomes difficult for structural designer to take stable decision to select types of foundations like pile foundation or ordinary strip or mat foundation to be used for the structure.

The problem becomes acute while going to choose among pile foundation and traditional mat or strip foundation developed in a deeper level to fit a soil layer having desirable bearing strength.
There should be an indicator for all construction conditions under which the use of pile foundation is considered as inexpensive with reference to traditional strip and mat foundations.
This article will focus on the variations through which the decision for choosing of pile foundation over other foundation types can be taken without difficulty. This condition line is formed on the reasonably detailed cost appraisal of the foundation. The foundation cost is impacted by the following factors :-
Factors impacting the cost of Pile Foundation
Evidently, final decision for employing the type of foundation, cannot be taken on the basis of the calculation of excavation volume and concrete quantity of deep mat or strip foundation with regard to cost of piles that support the same load.

A cap is needed for Pile foundation. The density of the cap should be approx 45cm for two piles and 60cm to 120cm for two pair of piles. Plan dimensions of piling cap should be up to 2100mm2 for pile having diameter of 550mm.
With tie beams provided over one direction, the Pile caps are joined together using tie beams in more than one direction.
It is found that, the excavation cost of pile cap along with capping beams and tie beams is two times the cost of machine excavation in moderately large column bases. With the advancement of construction, the perfect structural design as well as stringent supervision is required for pile foundation.

To get more details, click on the following link

How to choose pile foundation on the basis of cost versus other foundations for construction project

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

The role of a quantity surveyor in construction sector

Liabilities of a Quantity Surveyor: A Quantity Surveyor (QS) is a professional who mainly deals with construction costs and contracts associated with the Construction Industry. The role of a quantity surveyor is to recognize and compile the related costs with the purpose of creating a complete budget for any project.

A quantity surveyor can then accept cost planning to facilitate all the members of the design team to find out the practical solutions and maintain the budget of the project.

The Quantity Surveyors along with the project architect produce this final detailed estimate to make a basis on which consequent tenders are examined. With schedules of quantities, it becomes easier to translate the drawing, plans and specifications submitted by the design team to facilitate the each contractor to work out the tender prices reasonably. Once tenders are approved, the Quantity Surveyor arranges cash flow data for the client to outline his resources sufficiently to fulfill contract commitments. Alternatively, the Quantity Surveyor has to settle on how much of a job should have been paid for at any one time.
Duties of Professional Quantity Surveyor - A Professional Quantity Surveyor (PQS) should accomplish the following works:
Produce and assess construction and development tenders out of information submitted by the architects, engineers and other design consultants as well as settle and reward contracts to successful proponents..
Handle, supervise and organize all types of construction and development projects, along with the contracts and sub-contracts, construction progress schedules, cost control systems, and work measurements.
Arrange, submit and control progress invoices, valuation of changes and settle contracts. Give suggestion on construction cost and strategic planning to potential owners, architects, engineers and public authorities.
Arrange and interpret tender documents, specifications, general conditions, and other parts and forms of contracts.
Create and deliver estimates for construction and development work.
Give suggestion commercially and support to construction and development project works.
Perform or take part in arbitration and court hearings. Research, negotiate and support dispute resolution operations. Function of a Construction Estimator Certified professional.
A Professional Quantity Surveyor contains a thorough knowledge of construction and construction methods together with the laws regarding construction projects and accounting, with the intention of providing cost and financial advice.

A Professional Quantity Surveyor should have specialty in mechanical or electrical disciplines, but all Professional Quantity Surveyors should possess working knowledge of the practical facets and design features of both fields.

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, September 18, 2017

Benefits of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) in Concrete Construction

The objective of engineered cementitious composites is to develop a robust and flexible material that can be utilized in various purpose where fiber reinforced concrete can’t be used. It is the newest concept.
The formation of cementitious materials with high ductility is useful for structural applications. The engineered cementitious composites contain properties of high strength concrete having improved tensile strain capacity.
Definition of Engineered Cementitious Composite
The components of engineered cementitious composite are identical to fiber reinforced concrete along with cement, sand, water, fiber, and a few chemical additives. Contrasting to the fiber reinforced concrete, the engineered cementitious composites do not contain huge volume of fiber.
The method for blending engineered cementitious composites is equivalent to that utilized for the normal concrete. The engineered cementitious composites are cost-effective as less fiber is applied and they retain the desired characteristics of strength and ductility.
The main variance in the properties of engineered cementitious composite and fiber reinforced concrete is that as soon as the engineered cementitious composite is cracked strain is solidified whereas the fiber reinforced concrete does not demonstrate such a behavior.
In fiber reinforced concrete, the crack forms with the crack of the fibers because of that the bearing strength of the stress is reduced. Besides, the engineered cementitious composites contain a high fracture toughness that has similarity with aluminium alloys, and the damage tolerance is tremendously high.
Usage Of Engineered Cementitious Composite
Engineered cementitious composites are utilized in shear elements which are dependent on a cyclic loading, in the mechanical components of the beam and column coalition, and for general structural repairs.
These composites are generally applied in structures which contain a high energy absorption, along with dampers, steel element joints and for hybrid steel connections.
Beside, structural applications, these compounds can be utilized as a shielding layer for enhancing the corrosive resistance of structures. Other probable targets of engineered cementitious composites contain underground structures, highway pavements, and bridge decks.
To learn more click on the following link

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, September 15, 2017

Curtain Wall Design Tips For Water Penetration & Condensation

Designing curtain walls to water penetration brings huge benefits for maintaining the security, thermal performance and comfort of the structure and residents.
The rain caused by wind and condensation create huge issue and it becomes complicated to handle when curtain wall is designed together with gravity, kinetic energy, capillary action and surface tension and the chances are enhanced for water ingression.
Get the detailed information on the design of curtain wall against the infiltration of water and condensation.
Design of Curtain wall for Water Infiltration and Condensation
• Wind driven rain and the possibility of water ingression
• Design of curtain wall to control water penetration
• Design of curtain walls to control condensation
Wind driven rain and possibility of water ingression
There are five different types of forces such as that contribute either partially or as a whole to the ingression of water may occur due to existence of five various types of forces like gravity, kinetic energy, capillary action, surface tension and air pressure difference.
The curtain wall is capable of resisting forces that enhances the chance of water penetration. It is dependent on glazing details, drainage details, frame construction, weather stripping and frame gaskets, perimeter flashings and sealings and interior sealants.
Wind loads create differentials pressure that may cause windblown rain. It exceeds gravity force and as a result forces water to stir ascending.
Surface tension properties and capillary effect of curtain wall elements are significantly impacted with thermal expansion of various building materials.
As for example, expansion or contraction of materials because of temperatures may tight expansion joints extremely and ultimately raise capillary action among different components of the curtain wall.
The surface tension properties of curtain wall may fluctuate because of contraction and expansion and bring about unwanted results. So, it is necessary to design movable joints, seals and gaskets to accommodate differential movements among various members.

To learn how to make design of curtain walls to manage water penetration, click on the following link

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Different types of bearings used in bridge structures

Bridge bearings stand for structural equipment or devices which are set up among bridge substructure and superstructure with the purpose of transmitting the functional load together with earthquake loads; wind loads; traffic loads; and superstructure self-weight.
Bridge bearings also allow for relative movements among superstructure and substructure, as for example, rotation movements and translational movements in horizontal and transverse direction.
Bearing is employed in building up the bridge structure. It is categorized as expansion bearings and fixed bearings. The first one allows for both translational and rotational movements while the second one allows for rotational and limited translational movements.
There are several types of bridge bearings which are frequently utilized in bridge construction. The details are given below :-
Various types of bearings for bridges: Sliding bearings, Rocker and pin bearings, Roller bearings, Elastomeric bearings, Curved bearings, Pot bearings, Disk bearings
Sliding Bearings for Bridges: Sliding bearing is made of two metal plates, generally stainless-steel plates, which slide corresponding to each other and therefore allows room for translational movement and lubricating material among them.
A friction force is produced in sliding bearing and it is enforced on substructure, superstructure and sliding bearing itself. So, it is necessary to arrange lubricant like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to reject generated friction.
As per guidelines by ASSHTO, the bridge span should be less than 15m to use sliding bearing in bridge structures. It is due to sliding bearing is not fully applicable if there is rotation movement in bridge.
While using sliding bearing, this span limitation can be avoided if it is employed in conjunction with other bearing types.
Rocker and Pin Bearings for Bridge Structures: Rocker stands for an expansion bearing that contains curved surface at the bottom. It adjusts translational movement and a pin at the top takes rotation movement into consideration.
Both rocker and pin bearings are vital parts of steel bridge structure. Rocker and pin bearing are taken into account when the bridge movement is suitably known and defined, because such bearings can allow for both translational and rotational movements in one direction only.
These bearings are susceptible to deterioration and corrosion, so inspection and maintenance should be performed on regular basis.

To get further details, go through the following article

Different types of bearings used in bridge structures

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Some vital points a site civil engineer should abide by

Least density of the slab should be 125 mm.
Absorption of water should not be over 15%
Lapping is unaccepted for the bars which contain diameter over 36 mm.
Longitudinal reinforcement should be not under 0.8% and in excess of 6% of gross C/S.
At least 4 numbers of bars should be used for square column and 6 numbers of bars for circular column.
Minimum density of the slab should be 125 mm.
Lap slices are not recommended for the bar greater than 36 mm.
Water absorption of bricks should not surpass 15%.
PH value of the water should not be under 6.
Dimension tolerance for cubes should be +2 mm.
Densities of different types of construction materials :-
Steel = 7850 kg/Cum
Cement = 1440 kg/Cum
Brick = 1682 kg/Cum or 1920 kg/cum
Sand = 1100 to 1600 kg/cum

To get these information online, watch the following construction video.

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Published By
Rajib Dey


Tuesday, September 12, 2017

How selection of construction site is dependent on the various factors

Before starting the construction work of a residential building, the proper consideration should be given on the following factors to choose the exact site for the building.
Topography, Nature of sub-soil, Position of the ground water tablem, Facilities, Neighbourhood, Undesirable things near the site, Vegetation, Shape of the site, Availability of men and materials, Proximity to sea-shore, river or lake or the place of natural beauty
Topography: Plain Grounds : If the site is plain, the process for marking, excavation and construction becomes easier without any leveling. But the problem may arise for drainage. Besides, dull pools will be developed after a deep shower. In dry weather, outflow of septic tank develops pools and various diseases will be spread out due to mosquitoes and other insects.
Slopping Grounds : A bare at least of 1% (1 in 100)slope is essential for smooth drainage. At least 2% slope should be maintained for the drainage of lawns. Slope is easily visible, if it surpasses 5%.A ground that is properly leveled contains 0% slope but it is not perfect for construction whereas a slope among 3% and 10% is mostly recognized for constructions. Smooth erosion is possible along these slopes after a deep shower and creep (downward sliding of the subsoil)is generally occurred.
Undulating ground : After proper leveling, construction can be built up on undulating ground.
Low lying area : A low lying area is not recommended. Low lying area next to water body as a lake, reservoir, tank, river or canal may come with a nice view and arrange a superior comfort in severely chill and scorching climate.
Nature of sub-soil : If a soil contains strong bearing strength, a permanent building can be easily developed. The soil that remains underneath the ground is known as sub-soil. The soils which have gravel and sand are called dry soils. These soils cause greater temperature and less humidity.
The position of ground water table : Ground Water Table (GWT) should be located at minimum depth of 3 m underneath ground level.
Percolation : Soils percolating at 180 s/mm are correspondingly less porous and pooling of waste water is generally found in them.
Facilities : Community services like street cleaning, fire protection and utilities like gas supply, drainage line, transport system should have been easily accessible without incurring any additional cost.
To gather more details, click on the following link

Published By
Rajib Dey