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Friday, April 20, 2018

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

Steel buildings are mostly recognized since they are inexpensive as well as they can be mass produced and adapted from prevailing standards to fulfill various purposes.

The uses of steel building are found in different sectors like agricultural to commercial.


1. They are cost effective as compared to other building materials since you don’t have to appoint the engineers and architects for constructing the building. The steel buildings can be easily sustained and can be mass produced. They are one of the affordable types of building obtainable at this level.

2. Steel buildings are perfect for almost any space, specifically as they fulfil the needs for various types of single story buildings. They are also greatly ecological, specifically when provided with thermal accessories – of which several types are well-suited – for increased energy efficiency.

3. They can be sustained efficiently. In wooden buildings, or any type of structure which are built with organic material, there is chance for mould and mildew infestations and steel buildings are 100% eco-friendly so can either be easily reprocessed.

4. Steel buildings are utilized for different purposes: agricultural, storage, offices, temporary venues etc. They can be built up easily secure, both from damage and outside access, since steel (not like wood) will not distort and fastenings will persist protected in due course of time.

5. Steel buildings can be constructed easily and maintainable by their users, and be associated with a variety of supplementary features which can be acquired at little additional cost from the manufacturer. These extra features contain mezzanine options, green energy solutions, additional access doors and colors.

6. Steel buildings are designed for both permanence and impermanence that means they can be utilized for stockpile throughout project accomplishment or for long term stockpile of machinery or goods. Besides, the steel building are environment friendly as they can be easily set up with solar panels.

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Variations among pier, abutment and column

This construction video tutorial sheds light on the variations among pier, abutment and column. It is a very important topic for civil engineering students.

Definition of Pier: Normally, pier stands for the types of column which are situated among the two abutments in the bridge to accommodate the load of super structure of the bridge.

It transmits the load of vehicles, slab and longitudinal and cross beams to the foundation.

Definition of Abutment: It is mainly applied at the ends of the bridge to keep hold of the embankment as well as bear the vertical and horizontal loads for the bridge super structure to the foundation. Abutments are normally built up from concrete to combat the heavy load of the vehicles.

Abutment and pier have to resist wind and seismic load other than the load transmitted to it from beams and are known as substructure of bridge.

Definition of column: In Civil Engineering term, the column refers to a vertical member that bears the compressive load as well as transmits the load from slab and beams to the Foundation or Footing.

Variations among Pier and Abutment

Piers belong to the internal supports of the bridge.

Abutments belong to the ends supports of the bridge.

Abutment is developed in the end of bridge to support vertical and lateral moments, whereas, if we have a bridge containing multi spans, then, pier is arranged in the end of each span to support the same forces and moments.

More than two piers can be used in bridge construction.

The numbers of abutments are just two in the bridge at the ends.

Piers are built up among the abutments.

Abutments are the external support of the bridge.

To get more details go through the following video tutorial.

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, April 16, 2018

The role of water in concrete

Water Cement Ratio signifies the ratio among the weight of water to the weight of cement applied in concrete mix.

Generally, water cement ratio remains under 0.4 to 0.6 with adherence to IS Code 10262 (2009) for nominal mix (M10, M15 …. M25)

The strength of concrete is directly impacted by the water cement ratio. It enhances the strength if employed in perfect ratio and if the ratio is improper, the strength will be reduced.

The importance of Water in Concrete

Concrete refers to a macro content. It comprises of micro constituents like cement, sand, fine aggregate & Coarse aggregate. With the purpose of obtaining high strength concrete to resist the desired compressive strength, it is required to set exact ratio of admixture to unite these materials.

The role of water is important here to accelerate this chemical process by adding 23%-25% of the cement volume. It produces 15% of water cement paste also called gel to fill the voids in the concrete.

Impact of too much water in concrete: If additional water is added more than the permissible limit of 23%, the strength of concrete will be significantly affected.

If the task of adding water is continued to improve the workability then the concrete contains lots of fluid materials where the aggregates will settle down. As soon as the water is evaporated it puts down lots of voids in concrete which influences the concrete strength.

But if the guidelines are followed to retain the strength of the concrete then it will change the concrete workability and makes it difficult to manage and place them.

Workability signifies the capacity of concrete to manage, convey and place devoid of any segregation. The concrete becomes perfectly workable if it can be easily dealt with, placed and transported devoid of any segregation at the time of being placed in construction site.

For this purpose, plasticisers & superplasticizers are utilized to enhance the workability by keeping the W/C Ratio unchanged.
In order to know how to work out water cement ratio, go through the following construction article
The role of water in concrete

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, April 13, 2018

The detailed method of highway construction

By making extensive surveys and subgrade groundwork, highway construction is normally conducted. The methods and technology for constructing highways are upgraded in due course of time and turns to be more advanced.

The improvement in technology has increased the grade of skill sets essential for dealing with highway construction projects.

This skill differs from project to project, on the basis of different factors like the project’s complications and type, the contrasts among new construction and reconstruction, and variations among urban region and rural region projects.

There exist various components of highway construction which are segregated into technical and commercial components of the system. Given below, some illustrations of them:

Technical Components -

a. Materials
b. Material quality
c. Installation systems
d. Traffic

Commercial Components -

a. Contract understanding
b. Ecological characteristics
c. Political characteristics
d. Legal characteristics
e. Public interests

Generally, construction starts at the lowermost elevation of the site, in spite of the project type, and moves upward. After evaluation of the geotechnical specifications of the project, the following information is provided:

Present ground conditions -

a. Necessary apparatus for excavation, grading, and material transportation to and from the site
b. Characteristics of materials to be excavated
c. Necessity of dewatering for below-grade work

d. Necessity of shoring for excavation protection
e. The quantities of water for compaction and dust control

The detailed method of highway construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, April 12, 2018

Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India

QTO or Quantity take-offs is a thorough estimation of materials and labors which are required to complete any construction project.

These QTOs are expanded by an estimator in the preconstruction time and the estimation is used to format a bid on the range of construction.

Job Description: It is known to all that most of the engineering and construction projects come with large-scale actions and they need the investments of large amount of money. Projects are often get form some clients or contractors who want the highest quality in the project with a minimal cost that’s why they engage people called quantity surveyors. So basically a quantity surveyor has to do the job of a financial manager for a large engineering project who is charged with the maximum value of the project for his/her client to give a right balance of cost and quality.

When a quantity surveyor is involved in a project, he/she has to work with clients and their contacts from the start of the project during the process of the contract and engaging in opening cost analysis. From the start to end of a project, a quantity surveyor has to keep a continuous observation over the whole process and finds way for more improvement in the investment and project by producing daily profitability reports and keeping all the updates. Besides that, quantity surveyors also give advice and support for different tasks pursuing completion of the project for further changes.

Qualification: A quantity surveyor should have a college degree with significance in engineering and/or finance. So candidates must have to pursue official certificate and those who are not form a technical surveying will not be eligible so necessary education and experience is needed.

Wages: A Quantity Surveyor with the skills of Autodesk Quantity Takeoff can get the average payment of Rs. 418829 per year and the job needs a strong experience though this job generally don’t have more than 20 years’ experience. Salary could be Rs. 201164 – Rs. 833129 and bonus will vary that can be up to Rs. 95449 and with that there is also be the profit sharing, so it is clear that a quantity surveyor can get a good salary.

Quantity Surveyor Tasks:
• A quantity surveyor has to help in the credentials of commercial risks and chances and execute value engineering exercises when it is needed.
• He/she has to make and control material provision schedules.
• A quantity surveyor has to stimulate and develop a culture of contract awareness and assure about the fulfillment of contracts by stiffly maintaining records, contractual notifications, changing control etc.
• Also need to ready internal value reports for upper management and other departments.
More than that, they can get jobs in their cities or their nearby cities so start finding.
Apply Online
Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India
Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Testing of Concrete masonry Blocks

Concrete masonry bricks are very useful in the rural areas as it is cheap, easily found and can form less strong buildings, the compressive strength of the bricks should be tested.

And in urban areas these kinds of buildings may present a combination of both office and houses or grocery stores and houses or offices and retail stores.

Concrete can be changed into formed masonry units like Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks in right size to use for load and non-load bearing units for fencings or wallings. These concrete blocks are used more in the regions where soil bricks are costly, have less strength and not available all the time. As per the structural needs of masonry unit, the concrete mixes can be arranged using available ingredients or if not be suitable then with in the most economical distance.

Hollow concrete blocks are used for normal masonry when reinforced is used and it should not be leaner than 1 part cement of 8 parts room dry sand by volume. Compressive strength of concrete blocks or concrete masonry units is important to know the fitness of these in construction works for different reasons. Concrete masonry blocks are normally made of cement, amount and water which are usually comes in rectangular shape used in construction of masonry structure.


20 full sized units shall be counted for length, wide and height and the center units shall be calculated for least thickness of face, shells and webs.

The minimal dimensions of concrete masonry block differ in three things such as:

  • Length: 400/500/600mm
  • Width: 200/100mm
  • Height: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 or 300mm.

Tests on Concrete Masonry Block Units

various tests are done on concrete masonry unit to check all the requirements, but among them three most applied tests are discussed in this article. The blocks of same mix shall be taken and classified to these following tests:

  • Dimension measurement for all types of blocks
In this step all the blocks should be verified and calculated by the length, width and height with steel scale. After checking if the block found hollow, then the thickness of the web and face shell are calculated with caliper ruler, next a report need to be prepared included average length, width and height of block and with least face shell and web thickness using recorded dimensions.

  • Density of the concrete masonry blocks (3 blocks)
At first the block has to be heated in the oven to 100°c, then the heated block need to be cooled in the room temperature. Next measure the dimensions of block to find out the volume and weight of it, the density of the block is calculated form a calculation and the standard density of 3 blocks will be the final block density. The formula is: mass/volume (kg/m3 )

  • Compressive Strength tests
the average compressive strength of concrete masonry block is calculated by taking 8 blocks and all of them should be tested with in 3days after gathered in lab where the age of the blocks should be 28 days. The compressive strength is calculated in the Compressive

Strength Testing machine which has tow steel bearing blocks, one is in fixed position on which the masonry unit is kept and the other movable one can transfer the load to the masonry unit while applying. When the masonry unit’s bearing area is more than the steel blocks’ bearing area some different steel plates will be used. Those plates are organized on steel blocks in a way that the centre of masonry unit agreed with the center of thrust of blocks, bearing area units are completed with the Sulphur and granular materials coating. Then the unit in testing machine is placed and one-half of the expected highest loads are followed at a minimum rate while the rest is applied in not less than 2 minutes. Te load of masonry unit fails and the highest load is divided by basic sectional area of unit will give the compressive strength of block. By applying the same method, find out the rest 7 blocks’ compressive strength and then calculate the average strength of the 8 blocks which will be the final compressive strength of concrete masonry unit.

Some Commercial Building techniques that changing Construction

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, April 9, 2018

Steel Beam Connections

Steel beam connections are used to join different members of structural steel frame work; Steel Structure Collections attach various members to make them a unit.

Steel connections

Connections are like the structural elements which are used to connect various members of structural steel frame work and Steel Structure is a collection of different member like Beams, Columns which are joined with one another at member ends fasteners to show a single composite unit.


Generally steel beam connections are used in structures and all beam connections are categorized into two groups like framed and seated connections. The framed steel beam is connected to the supportive steel element by fittings and the seated steel beam is placed on seat like to the case where beam is located on masonry walls.
This article mainly focuses on the different types of steel beam connections with their working process, steel beam connections are divided into following types:

  • Bolted Seated Steel Beam Connection
When a beam is joined with a support, a column or a girder with web connection angles, then the joint is names as ‘framed’. Here every the connections must be plotted for the end reaction of the beam, its type, size and toughness of the fasteners and the capacity of bearing strength of core materials should be done. In these connections, the steel beams are connected in a way as supporting elements whether it is steel columns with the web connection angles and the minimum length of connection angle must be at least half of the beam clear web depth. The proportion is specified for right stiffness and solidity; there are different sizes of bolted framed connections besides their capability given by codes. This connection is required to enhance the rapidity of the design and minimum connection is enough to resist the applied load for making the design more economical.

  • Bolted Framed steel connections
In seated connection beams right sizes, capabilities and other data are filed in the AISC Manual, there are mainly two main types of bolted seated connections one of them is the soft bolted seat connections and hard bolted seat connection. When the reactions at the end of the beam are big then it is approved as hard or stiffened seat connections for their satisfactory capacity to oppose large forces. But the capability of soft or unstiffened seat connection is blocked for limited bending capacity of seat angle leg. The most helpful thing is that the beam in this connection can be invented economically and seat would give immediate support in the erection period.

  • Welded framed steel beam connection

This beam connection can be found in different sizes with their capabilities are available and supplied by codes. The weld of connection is bound to direct shave stress which caused by loads on the beam which beam affect weld pattern so the stresses are needed to be considered. The part of the welding is executed in a field where it seems difficult to get high quality weld for the movements of steel members caused by winds or other factors.

  • Welded seat steel beam connection
It is same as to bolt seat connection but used for bonding than bolts and the pressure on the beams affect the weld pattern curiously and create stress which need to be planned. The welded seat connections are of two types: unstiffened and stiffened, unstiffened is used for small loads and the stiffened is used to bear large loads. Use bolts to connect beam bottom border to the seat and the blots can be removed at their position after the end of their welded process. This connection is not requested from environmental point of view and worker as the connection can’t be erected easily.

  • End plate steel beam connection
This kind of connection is made through using the welding art and the end plate is joined to the beam by weld for its capability and size which are controlled by shear capacity of the beam web connected with the weld. The applied load on the connection at last of the member doesn’t have irregularities and the plate connections are of various types like flexible, semi-rigid and rigid. The fabrications and cuttings must be connected with the extreme care to stop errors but the end plate connections are not applicable to tall steel structures.

  • Special steel beam connections
These connections are used for the case where the preparations of the structural element are placed in a way that standard connections can’t be used. The connections can transfer moments into the columns as per degree of fixity of the connections and the higher degree of fixity of the beam connection is the greater ability to transfer the moments into the columns.

  • Simple, rigid and semi-rigid connections
Moment connections can transfer the forces in the beam sides to the column and this transfer moment must be provided for more and usually free of the shear connection needed to support the beam reaction. Simple, rigid and semi-rigid connections are designated simply to support beams and columns for shear only and leave the ends free to move under load. Besides carrying shear they provide enough rigidity to hold virtually unchanged angles between connected members.

Steel Beam Connections

Published By
Rajib Dey