- Based on shape: Rectangular, T, L, Circular etc.
- Based on supporting conditions: Simply supported, fixed, continuous and cantilever beams
- Based on reinforcement: Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced
Thursday, October 20, 2016
RCC beams structural elements are formed to bear transverse external loads that produce bending moment, shear forces and in some cases torsion over their length. Concrete performs well in compression but feeble in tension. The role of Steel reinforcement is to combat tensile stresses in reinforced concrete beams.
Now-a-days deformed and twisted bars are extensively used in RCC work. Deformed or High yield strength deformed bars (HYSD) contains ribs on the surface. It improves the stability of bond by minimum 40% with regards to that of mild steel bar.
Fine detailing of reinforcements with exact drawings is necessary at the job site to optimize the construction procedure. Usually, there is a bar bending schedule contained with these drawing. The bar bending schedule defines the length and number, position and the shape of the bar.
The detailing of beams generally involves the followings :
i) Size and number (or spacing) of bars,
ii) Lap and curtailment (or bending) of bars,
iii) Development length of bars,
iv) Clear cover to the reinforcement and
v) Spacer and chair bars
Anchorage in steel bars is demonstrated with bends and hooks. Hooks do not include Twisted steel bars or deformed steel bars. The anchorage value of bend of bar is captured as 4 times the diameter of bar for each 450 bend that depends on maximum of 16 times the diameter of bar. To expand the length of bars, bars are lapped over one another. Lowest lap length is identical to development length. Development length for bars in various concrete mix is provided in tables 4.2 to 4.4 of SP34.
The value of K given above is subjected to type of steel applied that is provided below :-
The beams are categorized as:
Depth of the beam is obtained on the basis of flexural strength and satisfying the deflection criteria. Usually the ratio of span to depth ratio is retained as 10 to 15 and the depth to width ratio of rectangular is maintained in the range of 1.5 to 2.
Lowest cover in beams should be 25 mm or not below the larger diameter of bar for all steel reinforcement together with links. Minimal cover provided in Table 16 and 16A of IS456-2000 should be applied to meet the stability criteria.
To read the complete article, go through the following link theconstructor.org
Wednesday, October 19, 2016
Usually, it should be examined when the footings are arranged for concreting i.e. reinforcement is completely engrossed but it is recommended to examine it in two phase i.e.
01. Initially verify formwork prior to arrange reinforcement. This is very useful because finding out & rectifying formwork defect is very difficult once the reinforcement is organized in position.
02. Checking reinforcement – Therefore, it is suggested to initially verify the formwork prior to place or tie reinforcement.
01. Centering and shuttering / Formwork:
While starting the shuttering & centering / formwork for footing , abide by the following points.
- Verify the center lines / margin from boundary etc. from reference column/bench mark pillar, boundary distance from roads and obviously orientation regarding North.
- Make sure that the foundation is laid at a designed depth according to drawing.
- Size of formwork box should be according to drawing and it should be formed with correct materials.
- The formwork should have been dry and be refined cautiously prior to use mould release agent. The similar type of release agent should have been applied through on identical formwork materials.
- The surface of formwork should have been uniform and delicately coated with mould release agent.
- The mould release agent should not be contacted with reinforcement or the solidified concrete.
- The height of shuttering must be similar with the height of pedestal and joint should have been closed to avoid any leakage of cement pulp.
- Footing box should have been supported correctly in order that the placing of footing box should be unchanged throughout concreting.
- Centre of the footing is stamped with the nail on planks or footing box.
- Foundations shuttering should be strong in dry or even rainy situations or even when ground water exist.
- Prior to tying reinforcement, get the shuttering sanctioned by Engineer-in-charge or supervisor.
- Ensure that there is no earth collection on C.C. prior to tying reinforcement.
To read the complete article, go through the following link gharpedia.com
Tuesday, October 18, 2016
Countless types of Building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures. These groupings of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to state the materials and techniques used for building projects.
BTech Engineering has presented an useful information which will assist engineers in construction worksite for determining the quality of construction materials. Construction Materials and Quality Control that used in construction of buildings like First class bricks quality, properties of sand, cements quality much more materials aggregates, stones, steel and so on.
Study the following video attentively:
Friday, October 14, 2016
ACCA Software SpA has developed Edificius, the leading professional software specially designed for architecture, engineering and construction. With Edificius, one can simplify the 3d architectural design process.
This Architectural BIM Design software can easily produce various construction documents like floor plans, elevation views, cross-sections, isometric and perspective views with a simple 2D or 3D input.
Every step of the BIM modelling phase is similar to an automatic and dynamic deviation of the pertaining construction documents adopting from the project. This will save huge time and get rid of errors.
With the 3D Edificius Architectural Design software, it is possible to instantly and smoothly explain the building’s BIM model with parametric architectural BIM objects exactly for 3D architectural design.
Edificius allows the users to instantly and simply generate the building’s BIM model that functions with both plan view (2D) or directly in the 3D modeling atmosphere through parametric architectural objects.
With “building envelope” objects, “curved building envelope” and “horizontal building envelope” it becomes easier to draw different types of load bearing walls, curtain walls, floors, walls and internal partitions. Isolate inner spaces from the outside, demarcating rooms and compartments and automatically obtain volumes and surface data, both for urban planning parameter assessments and for organizing the initial stages of what will then turn out to be the project’s cost estimate.
With the “curtain wall” and “curved curtain wall” objects, outline curtain wall facades (together with windows), etc.
There are user-friendly functional tools within roof object to model all types of pitched roof slabs.
To get more information, go through the following link
Thursday, October 13, 2016
This construction video is extracted from a construction course conducted by GrSoft Structural Engineering. This course will provide guidance on how to use Microsoft Excel to resolve complicated engineering calculations. In excel, there is powerful programming capabilities to solve all the engineering calculations easily.
Excel contains various input parameters which can be entered on a very easy and a rapid way. Besides, there is also a simple sketch that can be used as a graphical illustration of the basis of calculation having annotations of input parameters. The engineers can also apply the simple mathematical process as well as write various complicated formulas or iterations. Generate your own customized engineering calculations quickly. Update formulas in your calculation when necessary. Excel provides open-source solution with robust programmable tools.
- How to generate cells where input parameters are inputted
- How to produce a sketch with annotations of input parameters
- How to arrange cells where results of calculation will be written
- How to generate a push button to initiate start of the calculation
- How to write code to execute calculation
- How to write code to show the outcomes of the calculation
- How to carry out calculation
- How to customize excel for creating practical engineering calculation for structural analysis
Thursday, October 6, 2016
This construction article briefly demonstrates how to draw SFD and BMD. SFD stands for Shear Force Diagram and BMD stands for Bending Moment Diagram. These two play a major role for creating the design of members.
Specific parameters are necessary for each design method to design the capacity of members. These parameters act as input in design process and as an end result there will be cross-sectional and material properties.
This video focuses on graphical approach to demonstrate how analysis of a simply supported beam is prepared and drawing is made for shear force and Bending moment diagram. Conventions are similar to that applied in software like etabs and sap2000. Bending Moment is positive downward with the purpose of clarifying in superior manner where reinforcement should be positioned.
Wednesday, October 5, 2016
This construction video will introduce step-by-step processes for making your plastering work efficient with any rapid set plaster. The video provides information on how to skim coat or render plaster over cinder block walls with the use of rapid set plaster.
Here the Portland cement is used for plastering work. Rapid set plaster is applied to achieve quicker set times, greater stability, higher strength, marginal shrinkage and reduced cracking.