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Thursday, November 30, 2017

Resist construction issues at site by making cost-effective foundation design

In order to create the design of foundations in a cost-effective manner as well as resolve practical construction issues, some factors should be taken into consideration.

Tips to create the design of the foundations in a cost-effective manner and avoid construction issues at job site.

a. Formation of the foundation should be shallow
b. Curtail construction cost of the foundation
c. Awareness of structural designer
d. Resist the application of costly and complicated formworks
e. Consistency of site investigation
f. Take decision to build up rapid or slow foundation
g. Impact of foundation construction on the ground and structures at area of the foundation
h. Disparities in foundation geometry and requisite of diverse joints
i. Effect of objectionable elements on constructed foundation
Build up the Foundation as Shallow for saving
It is recommended to make the foundation shallow as much as possible. Make the best use of the size to sufficiently support loads and resist ecological impacts. Proper care should be taken to keep the depth and width of the foundation within limit.
This measure should be mostly suitable where the foundation is built up in completely saturated soil in which issues may arise because of existence of water. The cost is increased significantly with regards to the foundation developed in dry soil condition.
Decrease Cost of Foundation Construction: This can happen with a constant modification of construction methods and costs as the frugality of design differs significantly and usable standard might be obsolete.
To get more information, go through the following article
Resist construction issues at site by making cost-effective foundation design

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

How to design tensile strength of angle section according to IS Code 800-2007

This is another useful presentation from the eminent civil engineer Mr. Parag Pal. In this video he shows the essential method to create the design of tensile strength of angle section ISA 9060 with thickness 6 mm as per IS code 8000-2007 limit state method.
Tensile strength is a vital attribute of concrete as concrete structures are extremely susceptible to tensile cracking owing to different types of effects as well as applied loading itself.
Tensile strength of concrete is very low with reference to its compressive strength.
Because of the complexity in employing uniaxial tension to a concrete sample, the tensile strength of the concrete is defined with indirect test methods like split cylinder test and flexure test.
It must be remembered that above methods provide the greater value of tensile relating to the uniaxial tensile strength.
Tensile strength calculates the force necessary to pull a structural beam to the point where it cracks.
The tensile strength of a material refers to the maximum amount of tensile stress that it is based on prior to failure.
The definition of failure differs in relation to material type and design procedure.
Watch the following video tutorial, to learn the design process for tensile strength.

Read Continue

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Some useful construction tips to provide clear cover for reinforced concrete structure

This construction video tutorial will provide detailed guidelines on how to provide perfect clear cover in reinforcement concrete structure.
With the intension of safeguarding the reinforcement from corrosion as well as arranging fire resistance to bars implanted in concrete, clear cover is set for Reinforced Concrete Structures.
Clear cover stands for the distance among C.G of reinforcement bars and bottom most point of concrete.
The thickness of cover is dependent on ecological conditions and nature of structural member.
The depth of concrete cover is calculated by applying a cover meter.
The clear cover that should be provided is determined by Indian Standards. IS 456:2000.
Watch following youtube video to learn the complete process :-

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, November 27, 2017

Pros and Cons of ready-mix concrete

Ready-mix concrete belongs to a concrete that is formed in a batch plant, on the basis of a predefined engineered mix design. Ready-mix concrete is generally supplied in two ways i.e. the barrel truck or in–transit mixers.

This type of truck supplies concrete in a plastic state to the site. And the volumetric concrete mixer. It supplies the ready mix in a dry state and then blendes the concrete on site.

Given below some pros and cons of ready-mix concrete :-
Pros of ready-mix concrete:
a. With Ready Mix Concrete (RMC), the construction process becomes fast with programmed delivery at site, automated operation with subsequent economy.
b. The costs of labor and site supervision are decreased significantly.
c. RMC maintains uniformity in quality with perfect & computerized control of sand aggregates and water according to mix designs.
d. Formation of RMC facilitates reducing cement wastage because of mass handling.
e. While producing RMC, no pollution occurs.
f. By using RMC in project, project time is curtailed significantly and it leads to huge savings in all phases.
g. Perfect control and economy in applying raw material leads to saving of natural resources.
Cons of Ready-Mix Concrete
Following are the cons of ready-mix concrete:
1. The materials are batched at a main plant, and the mixing starts at that very plant. So the transition time from the plant to the site covers longer distances and becomes complicated. Some sites locate at too remote distance, which may cause risk for ready mix concrete to be useless owing to setting.
2. It will create extra road traffic. Normally, Ready Mix Trucks are bigger in size and may take huge space in the road that will obstruct other traffic. Besides, access roads and site access should have the capacity to bear the heavier weight of the ready-mix truck plus load. (Green concrete is approx. 2.5 tonne per m³.) This issue can be resolved by using so-called ‘mini mix’ companies which employ smaller 4m³ capacity mixers to visit more-restricted sites.
3. Concrete’s constrained time span among mixing and curing signifies that ready-mix should be arranged within 210 minutes of batching at the plant. The time span can be rectified with modern admixtures perfectly, though, the amount and type of admixture that is included with the mix is very crucial.
Pros and Cons of ready-mix concrete

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, November 24, 2017

Various jobs opportunities for civil engineers in Dubai

In this video, you will get detailed information of job vacancies for civil engineers. The location of the job is Dubai.

Quantity Surveyor: A position is vacant for experienced and qualified quantity surveyor in Dubai.

At least 3 to 6 years working experience in quantity surveying field.
Ability to work autonomously along with skill to write correspondence.
The candidate should contain minimum a diploma or similar education.
The candidate should have outstanding communication and interpersonal skills.
Knowledge with interior fit-out-industries will be treated as extra qualification.
Duties and responsibilities :-
Quantity measurement
Deal with costing
Make quotations
To apply for the job, go through the following website
Civil Engineer: A position is vacant for knowledgeable civil engineer in UAE.
Accomplish technical and feasibility studies and sketch out blueprints as per technical specifications.
Give useful suggestions and solve out any prospective issues and deficiencies.
Deal with the consequential structures and services to be utilized.
Ability to control budget and buy equipment/materials.
Duties and responsibilities
Project Management and supervision skills
Sound communication and interpersonal skills
One year working experience in the jobsite.
BS/MA in Civil Engineering
This post is intended for male candidates only.
To apply for the job, go through the following website
Watch the following construction video to get more jobs information.

Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, November 23, 2017

SO-Foundation, a powerful construction program for finding out the bearing strength of shallow foundation

Soil Office, the leading developer of various geotechnical engineering software, has created SO-Foundation. It is a powerful construction program that can be used to compute bearing strength of shallow foundations in view of both “shear failure” and “settlement”.

The software applied Hansen, Meyerhof, Vesic, Terzaghi and Eurocode methods to find out the shear failure. The are also several options to work out elastic and consolidation settlements.

The software also provides complete detailed reports.
Features - General
- Provides information on near about 20 soil layers.
- User can get notification on the common ranges concerning input parameters.
- Pressure isobars are computed and produced under footings.
- Defines bearing strength of shallow footings (Spread, Continuous and Mat) with various dimensions in view of both shear failure and settlement (Elastic and Consolidation).
- Estimate settlement according to the tolerable pressure.
- Estimate modulus of subgrade reaction.
- Estimate and creation of modulus of subgrade reaction contour on the footing surface.
- Export results to MS Excel format.
- Demonstration of calculation report containing adequate details.
- Formation of profiles for the preferred settings.
- Saving files with a smallest size.
Shear failure:
- Utilization of 5 methods, Eurocode, Hansen, Meyerhof, Terzaghi and Vesic.
- Modification of general factor of safety.
- Strength reduction factors are attributed for friction angle and cohesion, independently.
- Water effect is used with 2 methods.
- Inclusion of large footing effect in calculations.
• General
- Modification of permissible settlement by user’s will.

- Valid depth in settlement calculation is defined as the least amount of below:
a. Pressure isobars (based on each of the methods Boussinesq, Westergaard and Approximate 2V:1H) or a multiple of foundation width.
b. Depth of the rigid layer.
To download the software and gather more information, click on the following link
Watch the following video for online demonstration.

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

16-Hour Structural Engineering (SE) Practice Exam for Buildings (STBDPX3), 3rd Edition – An exclusive book for civil engineering students

Joseph S. Schuster,SE, PE and Simpson Gumpertz & Heger (SGH) have jointly written an exclusive construction e-book known as 16-Hour Structural Engineering (SE) Practice Exam for Buildings (STBDPX3), 3rd Edition.

The book is available in paperback version and contains 184 pages. In the book, there are 40-problem, multiple-choice breadth exams and two four-essay depth exams in accordance with the NCEES SE exam’s format and specifications.

It takes an average of six minutes to resolve the multiple-choice problems provided in the book. It takes 1 hour to resolve the essay problems.
Extensive step-by-step solutions are provided for all problems with precise and well-organized problem-solving approaches. The solutions to the depth exams’ essay problems apply blue text to recognize the information to be expected for being contained in your exam booklet to obtain full credit. The additional content applies black text to makeyour understanding of the solution process better.
16-Hour Structural Engineering (SE) Practice Exam for Buildings will provide the following benefits to the students:
• Make them ready for all four exam components
• Associate appropriate theory to exam-like problems
• Recognize perfect problem-solving approaches
• Explore with the exam-adopted codes and standards
• Solve problems under timed conditions
The following referenced codes and standards are used in the book :-
• AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (AASHTO)
• Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (TMS 402/602)
• Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318)
• International Building Code (IBC)
• Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI7)
• National Design Specification for Wood Construction ASD/LRFD (NDS)
• North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (AISI)
• PCI Design Handbook: Precast and Prestressed Concrete (PCI)
• Seismic Design Manual (AISC)
• Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic with Commentary (NDS SDPWS)
• Steel Construction Manual (AISC)
To purchase the book online, click on the following link
16-Hour Structural Engineering (SE) Practice Exam for Buildings (STBDPX3), 3rd Edition – An exclusive book for civil engineering students

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Civil Engineering – The newest construction app for engineering science students & professional

Civil Engineering is a powerful civil engineering app that includes the fundamentals of civil engineering.

There are various types of crucial topics, notes, materials, videos included in the app.

The civil engineering students can download the app and utilize it as reference material & digital book for civil engineering program & tech degree courses.
This app is very useful for the following sectors :-
a. Transportation
b. Coastal engineering
c. Structural
d. Environmental
e. Geotechnical
f. Construction
g. Architectural
h. Engineering mechanics
This handy Civil Engineering App involves 60 topics supported with detailed notes, diagrams, equations, formulas & course material. The topics are segregated in 5 chapters. The app is specifically designed for all the engineering science students & professionals.
The app offers quick revision and reference to some vital topics like a detailed flash card notes. With this app, the student or a professional can easily avail interview for jobs.
The app can be applied to track your learning, set reminders, edit the study material, adjoin favorite topics as well as spread the topics on social media.
All the topics are supported with diagrams, equations and other forms of graphical representations to simplify the process for learning and understanding.
Civil Engineering Basics is a vital portion of engineering education courses and technology degree programs at different universities.
One can download the app from google play store by clicking the following link
Civil Engineering – The newest construction app for engineering science students & professional

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, November 20, 2017

Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

In order to resist damage and failure of concrete structures, steel reinforcement Corrosion control methods are undertaken. Near about forty percentage of collapsing of concrete structures occur due to corrosion of inner steel reinforcement.

There are various reasons for the corrosion of steel reinforcement which range from the quality of concrete, atmosphere, and quality of construction practices.

Initially, it is required to arrange superior quality of concrete via good construction practices to manage corrosion in rebar. To manage rebar corrosion, the focus should be given on various factors like the quality of concrete materials, mixing, placing and compaction methods and good workmanship.
Quality control in concrete construction minimizes the scopes of corrosion. By applying the following methods, the corrosion of reinforcement bar can be controlled efficiently.
Steel reinforcement corrosion control processes :-
• Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC)
• Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC)
• Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD)
1.Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC): Cement polymer coat rebar implanted in concrete are encircled through an alkaline medium. A cement base coating is very effective in controlling reinforcement corrosion. Two coats of cement polymer are used on rebar like first Primer coat and a sealer coat.
Products contained in Cement Polymer Composite Coated rebar are:
• De-rusting Solution
• Alkaline Powder
• Phosphating Jelly
• Inhibitor Solution
• Sealing Solution
2. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC): Fusion bond epoxy coat rebar is formed with 100% solid delicately grounded fuse powder particles. These particles are dissolved through heating to develop a permanent adherent film. There is not any passivating primer film contained in FBEC rebars. It produces a medium of weakness in the path of an intimate bond among rebar and alkaline concrete.
Epoxy provides the coating to the rebar with the following :-
• Melts
• Flows
• Gels
• Cures
• Cools
• Adheres to coating
3. Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD): Under this method, an initial layer of protective oxide or rust is created to resist the corrosion. On general rust on normal rebars, the CRSD rust is passive, persistent and self-renewing. The preventive oxide is fine texture, tightly adherent and a barrier to moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide. The chloride provides protection against corrosion.
It is suggested to employ corrosion resistance Steel Deformed Rebars to resist corrosion of concrete structures, damage, and collapsing of concrete structures.
Article Source :
Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, November 18, 2017

How to design reinforced & unreinforced concrete and masonry gravity retaining walls as per Euro & BS codes

MasterKey Retaining Walls Design provides the most extensive program that can be used for creating the design of both reinforced and unreinforced concrete and masonry gravity retaining walls as per Eurocode 7, BS 8002, BS 8110, CP2 IS 325 and BS 5628 Part1 and Part2. Highways design by adhering to BD 30/87 & BD37/01 is also comprised.

The users can easily use MasterKey Retaining Walls with a short learning curve.

With it’s collaborative nature, it is possible to instantly view the effects of inserting loads, piers, ties and props, rectifying reinforcement as well as the wall geometry or soil properties. MasterKey Retaining Walls offers you complete control over the design method, allowing you to improve the efficiency of the wall.
• Design Codes: British, Irish & Eurocode design
• Concrete retaining wall design
• Masonry retaining wall design
• Cavity, bed-joint and pocket reinforcement in masonry walls
• Design to Eurocode 7, BS 8002 or CP2
• Design to Highways BD 30/87 & BD 37/01
• Stiffened and unstiffened walls including buttressed and counterfort walls
• Layered soil modelling
• Water table and horizontal surge force
• Cohesive and granular soils
• Sloped or stepped front and back faces
• Upstand above top of soil
• At rest earth pressure
• Multiple props, ties and spring supports
• Line loads on wall, base and embankment
• Partial distributed surcharges
• Exports DXF details
• Exports details to MasterRC for AutoCAD
• Schedules using the MasterRC Scheduler
In order to download a full functioning 30-days trial version, click on the following link

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, November 17, 2017

Learn the process to Seal or Repair Cracks in Concrete Floors & Walls

This article sheds light on how to seal and repair cracks in concrete floors, poured concrete slabs, foundations, walls, or other masonry.

Information is provided for all the existing processes which are useful to seal control joints or cracks taking place in those building surfaces.

Information is also given for the properties, general process, and benefits and disadvantages of each process like control joint inserts, masonry caulks, radon crack sealants, semi rigid epoxy resin crack fillers, special poly urea caulks designed as a joint filler - polyurethane foam injection to seal cracks, grouts along with portland cement, latex-modified, epoxy, modified epoxy-supported, and furan grouts or other products applied to fill or seal cracks in concrete or other masonry surfaces & structures.
Discussion is made on how to select among and utilize the alternative procedures for repairing or sealing cracks in masonry surfaces like poured concrete floor slabs, concrete foundation walls, or brick or masonry block foundation walls. Application of epoxy sealants, polyurethane foam sealants, and hydraulic cement crack repair sealants.
This article series also explains how to identify and analyze different types of foundation failure or damage, like foundation cracks, masonry foundation crack patterns, and moving, leaning, bulging, or bowing building foundation walls.
Types of foundation cracks, crack patterns, variations in the meaning of cracks in several foundation materials, site conditions, building history, and other evidence of building movement and damage are explained to facilitate identifying foundation defects and to allow the inspector for isolating cosmetic or low-risk conditions from those expected to be crucial and potentially costly to repair.
The focus is also given on a list of materials utilized to fill poured concrete slab control joints. Also learn how to seal a cracked masonry foundation wall or floor slab. Typical concrete crack groundwork for sealant with an epoxy product.
Application of Polyurea as a control joint filler or crack sealant in concrete slabs (Polyurethane Foam Injection Method). Utilization of Epoxy-supported Grouts as a control joint or crack filler in concrete slabs or walls. Complete lists of the Types of Tile Grouts, their Bonding Agents and other Properties. As well as Concrete expansion joint sealant products, epoxies, caulks.
Utilization of Hydraulic Cement for Repairs in Concrete Slabs, Foundations, or Masonry Block/Brick Walls.
To get more details, go through the following link
Learn the process to Seal or Repair Cracks in Concrete Floors & Walls
Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Brief overview of various building elements necessary for reinforced concrete structure

1st Floor: It belongs to the floor that contains 1 storey height over ground.

Basement Floor: The floor that is located at basement of the building. It is also known as cellar. The basement floor is situated either entirely or partly underneath the ground floor. A basement is utilized closely in the similar way like a supplementary above-ground floor of a house or other building.

The application of basements mainly based on several factors associated with a specific geographical area like climate, soil, seismic activity, building technology, and real estate economics.
The concrete floor in most basements is not included in the foundation structurally except the basement walls. With the surge of warm air, basements are normally cooler compared with the remaining part of the house. In summer, it makes basements damp, because of the greater relative humidity.
Basement Wall: The wall that encircles the basement floor is known as the basement wall and it considered as a vital portion of the foundation structurally. The basement walls stands for shear walls which have the ability to withstand the lateral loads also. Besides, these walls are considered as highly non-porous and water-defiant.
Column Bracket: Column Bracket is over hanged from the column and it is useful for hanging or affixing lamps, bulbs or other accessories to it similar to road signs.
Column Capital: Column capital belongs to an architectural element that is utilized for aesthetic purposes to develop the uppermost member of a column.
Drop Panels: The objective of drop panels is to solidify the slab around the column in flat slabs to get rid of punching shear. As flat slabs do not contain stirrups, shear is defended by solidifying the slab around the column to raise the concrete in shear. Beams are also applied, but normally drop panels are most effective to get rid of conflicts with the electro-mechanical works of the structure.
Exterior Columns: These are the columns which provide support to the primary structure of the building. Normally in frame structures, the exterior columns are very crucial and sustain the load of the building as well as withstand environmental factors like wind, rain, and other physical factors.
Flat Plate: These are the slabs to be attached with the columns directly. Flat plate system is mostly recognized by the engineers as it offers huge benefits. The system can curtail the height of the building, offer more flexible spatial planning as there are no beams. It also minimizes the material cost significantly. But the issue is that it can be easily broken and may collapse against punching shear. Because of the comparatively small floor loading and the tight column spacing, flat plate construction is getting popular.
To combat greater loading and larger column spacing, column capitals are necessary, and for even bigger spans to decrease the self-weight, waffle slabs are required.
To get more information, go through the following article
Brief overview of various building elements necessary for reinforced concrete structure

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Placement of lap in column as per IS Code 13920

This construction video tutorial sheds light on reinforcement lapping zone in column. By going through this video, one can learn how to place lap in exact position in column by adhering to IS code 13920.

A lap is required when two pieces of reinforcing bar (rebar) are overlapped to produce a constant line of rebar. The length of the lap fluctuates according to the concrete strength, the rebar grade, size, and spacing.

The objective of lap is to transmit load from one bar to another bar as well as retain continuity. The positioning of lap is dependent on the bending moment of the column.
Lap length refers to the length of the overlap of bar necessary to securely transmit stress from one bar to another. Lap length varies on the basis of tension and compression zones and mostly relies on grade of concrete and steel. Development length refers to the length of the bar necessary to transmit stress from steel to concrete.
Rebars in column should have been lapped at around 5 feet from the story.
As stated by I.S. 13920 Vertical bars of Columns should be lapped in regular zone (Mid-height ) only and it should be spread out i.e. not surpassing 50% of bar is lapped at one section. Besides, lowest clear vertical distance among lapped bars should be 0.25 times lap length.
To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.

Read more

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Basic needs of a Building

The planning and construction of a building is undertaken on the basis of the following conditions :-

Strength and Stability – There should be proper arrangement for building to transmit the probable loads securely to the ground through it full lifecycle. Proper safeguard should be taken for designing various types of structural elements like slabs, beams, walls, columns and footing. All the structural components should be free from buckling, overturning and collapsing.

Dimensional Stability - The structural elements become instable due to extreme deformation that may lead to crack in walls, flooring etc. All the structural elements should have been designed in such a manner so that the allowable values mentioned in the codes should remain within limit.
Resilience to Dampness - Dampness in a building is a vital concern as it may endanger the life of the building. To get rid of dampness, proper precaution should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building.
Resistance to Fire: To maintain fire resistance capacity, the building should abide by the following basic needs mentioned in the codes:
• the structure should not be inflammable easily.
• there should be perfect building orientation to resist the scattering of fire quickly.
• to escape from fire, there should be ways of smooth access to depart from building rapidly.
Heat Insulation- A building should be properly oriented and designed to protect inside area from heat.
Sound Insulation – The planning for building should be done in such a manner to protect from outdoor and indoor noises.
Safeguard from Termite – Proper protection should be taken for buildings against termite.
Stability - Each and every element of the building should be stable enough.
Security against Burglary - This is the basic requirement that the owner of the building look forward to.
Lighting and Ventilation- To maintain a healthful life, there should sufficient natural light and ventilations.
Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be retained within the building.
Comforts and Amenities – Different types of units in the building should be perfectly grouped and incorporated ensuring the comfort and amenities of the user.
Basic needs of a Building

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, November 13, 2017

Various types of masonry Mortar

Mortar is extended in among the masonry, grouts, and stuffs the cavities of the masonry units. Mortar belongs to the material that is visible among the bricks. Mortar allows the masonry units to remain jointly. Mortar is very vital in masonry construction. It is always recommended to apply the proper mortar or grout.

The process is complicated to find out the exact mixture for the mortar or grout for maintaining proper strength. The mortar or grout should contain the perfect strength to get rid of over bearing issue (load bearing in this case). Besides, the mixture that retains the masonry sections together should not be considerably stronger that what the masonry units are, because it can transform the load bearing to gain extreme amount of stress.

If the mortar’s mixture is not provided properly it can lead to weighing over the masonry units themselves and results in damaging the structure with cracking and/or spakling.
The categorization is done on the basis of ASTM C 270 (Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry). Given below, various categories of mortar.
Mortar-Type M: Mortar (Type M) contains a minimum 2500 psi and suitable for areas to withstand a considerable amount of load bearing, wind forces, earthquakes, and etc. This specific type of mortar is normally applied with stone. If the Mortar is formed with any material that contains less strength, it may collapse the structure and its job positioning prematurely.
Application - This type of mortar is normally applied with stone as it closely simulates the strength of stone, it will not collapse prior to the stone itself collapses.
Mortar (Type S): This type of mortar contains a minimum of 1800 psi. It contains medium strength, and defined as (Type S). It is mostly utilized for outside structures like a patio as well as exterior walls which are assessed below grade as it is more durable as compared to (type N). Therefore, it is best suited to perform with mildly withstanding soil pressures below grade.
Applications - Below grade having normal to moderate loading. In some areas where the masonry touches the ground, like paving or shallow retaining walls.
Mortar (Type N) for general purposes: Mortar (Type N) is mostly recognized mortar. This type of mortar is utilized when there exist no other special circumstances which need a specialty for the load bearing of a structure. It has medium strength (minimum 750 psi) and is suitable for reinforced interior and above-grade exterior load-bearing walls. It is perfect for semi-soft stone or masonry as it will bend in excess of a high-strength mortar to resist prevents cracking of the masonry units.
Mortar (Type O): Mortar (Type O) refers to a mortar that contains a low strength (a minimum of 350 psi). This type of mortar is useful for interior usages where non-load bearing exist. It is frequently applied to patch mortar where the wall has strong structure. Type O mortar is occasionally applied with masonry units having a low compressive strength (i.e. sandstone or brownstone) to allow more flexibility for resisting cracks in the units.
Applications: Interior non-load-bearing areas with very restricted exterior use because of its low structural capacity and not suitable for the areas prone to high winds. Type O Mortar mix is perfect when repointing because of its stability. It is applied in above grade, non-load bearing situations preferably in interior environments.
Mortar (Type K): The (Type K) Mortar is not listed under the ASTM C 270 anymore, although it is still applicable to projects which have a pre-historic preservation need. This type of mortar will not produce any damage to a fragile structure, nor to any fragile stones as it contains the lowest compressive strength of any mortar.
Applications : Mortar (Type K) is useful for safeguarding pre-historic structures, which needs the use of a low strength mortar to get rid of any damage. Type K is not recommended for load bearing.
Various types of masonry Mortar

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, November 10, 2017

How batching of concrete is done

Concrete is a multipurpose, long-lasting, eco-friendly, and inexpensive material as well as globally recognized construction material. To produce superior quality concrete, the components of concrete should be calculated properly and perfectly. Once mix design is set, the initial task should be batching materials.

Batching of concrete stands for the method of estimating and mixing necessary concrete ingredients both with weight or volume according to the mix design and implanting them into a mixture to form a consistent quality of concrete.

By perfectly computing all the material applied in the concrete formation, it becomes possible to maintain consistency of proportions in all consequent batches.
Why Batching of Concrete is Important?
Usually, following three types of batching are undertaken for concrete components:
01. Random Volumetric Batching: Batching devoid of any control on the size and shapes of applied containers leads to big errors and deviations like utilizing “ghamellas” i.e. – by tallying numbers of ghamellas. This method is totally unscientific, unrefined and should not be recommended even for a small project.
02. Volume Batching of Concrete: Volume batching of concrete is accomplished with the use of measurement boxes, locally named “farmas or gauge boxes”. Concrete components like aggregates ( Kapachi +Sand) and cement is calculated with farmas or gauge boxes and proper precaution should be maintained to ensure that the farmas or gauge boxes are filled excessively. To calculate the quantity of water, the water meter should be utilized when batching or use cans of water contain fixed volume.
03. Weigh Batching of Concrete: Weigh batching of concrete is accomplished with the use of a weigh batch or the weighing system on the batching plant. On big projects, automatic batching plants are set up to facilitate optimizing quality and uniformity.
Water is very vital material and therefore, maximum water should be used for batching. If the quantity of water is less, the functionality of concrete will be hampered whereas surplus water will minimize the strength of concrete. Water should be computed perfectly in litres.
The selection of batching method is based on the size of job, production rate and standards of batching performance.
Usually batching is performed with volume. Precision in batching is very crucial. It is better to perform weigh batching instead of volume batching. Volume batching is mostly effective where weigh batching is not possible. It is always recommended to incur additional cost for it, because in long term, it saves huge costs.
Note: The quantity of cement should also be calculated by maintaining the precision of ± 2 percent and the quantity of aggregates, admixtures and water should be calculated with a precision of ± 3 percent.
Article Source:
How batching of concrete is done

Published By
Rajib Dey