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Friday, March 31, 2017

What should be the qualities of a qualified civil engineers

A qualified civil engineer should be well familiar with various tests of building materials. Given below, detailed lists of some vital tests.
 Concrete Test: Slump test, compression test, split tensile test, soundness etc.
 Soil Test: Core cutter test, compaction test, sand replacement test, triaxial test, consolidation test etc.
 Bitumen Test: Ductility test, softening point test, gravity test, penetration test etc.
2. Examination OF SOIL:
Prior to develop a construction, different types of soil tests are done for finding out the settlement and strength of soils before starting a construction. Therefore, a civil engineer must contain sound knowledge regarding these tests which are carried out at the jobsite.
3. Application OF SURVEYING Tools:
A civil engineer should be well versed with utilizing various surveying instruments like the total station, theodolite etc. These instruments can be applied for marking and perfect measurements.
Each country contains their own standard safety specifications (eg: Is Code) for performing various activities associated with construction. There are various types of rules and methods in the standard codes and these are followed to build up new construction. If not, there are risks factors for collapsing of a structure.
Bar bending schedule is considered as a crucial chart for civil engineers. It helps to make the reinforcement calculation for RC beam that ranges from cutting length, type of bending, the length of bending etc.
Drawing and design are considered as the pillars of a project in-progress. It offers all the necessary specifications of that project. Each site engineers must have the capability to efficiently analyze such drawings and designs.
A civil engineer should be able to prepare estimation and bills toward a construction project.
Quality control maintains the profit of a project by lessening the additional costs. Therefore, a civil engineer should contain the fundamental knowledge of quality control.
A civil engineer should have clear ideas on form-work, concreting, safety measures etc.
A civil engineer should have the capability to manage labors efficiently in a jobsite.
What should be the qualities of a qualified civil engineers
Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Detailed Estimating Sheet

Detail sheets consist of the genuine quantities and unit prices intended for each of the construction categories. To make the estimating process uncomplicated, various formulas can be put in to carry out the calculations. It will save huge time for builder.

As soon as the detailed sheets are formed, the estimator just has to provide the take-off quantities for the different items. Line item totals, category totals as well as several line-item quantities are automatically calculated from the take-off quantities. If any alterations occur, all calculations are automatically and rapidly updated. The category totals on the detail sheets can be connected to the summary sheet in order that it automatically copies the totals from the detail sheets.

Detailed Estimating Sheet

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

How to apply conjugate beam method for beam rotations and deflections

Go through this useful construction video tutorial to learn how to estimate the quantity for different types of arches like semi circular arch, full circular arch and segmental arches.
Conjugate beam is also known as the imaginary beam that contains the similar dimensions (length) as that of the original beam but load at any point on the conjugate beam is equivalent with the bending moment at that point divided by EI.
In the arena of Structural Analysis, the deformation of beams under different loading is analyzed to find out their slope and deflection through various geometric methods. The conjugate beam method belongs to one of these geometric methods. Because the meaning of the term "Conjugate" is 'related or reciprocal', this method highlights substituting a real beam with an reciprocal imaginary beam for analysis.
This method is particularly beneficial for simply supported beams. For other beams, like cantilevers or overhanging beams, artificial constraints should be used.
Characteristics of Conjugate Beam
  • The length of a conjugate beam is equivalent to the length of the actual beam at all times.
  • The load on the conjugate beam refers to the M/EI diagram of the loads on the actual beam.
  • A simple support for the real beam stands simple support for the conjugate beam.
  • A fixed end for the real beam turns out to be free end for the conjugate beam.
  • The point of zero shear for the conjugate beam coincides with a point of zero slope for the real beam.
  • The point of maximum moment for the conjugate beam coincides with a point of maximum deflection for the real beam.
Video Courtesy : CTSCIVIL

How to apply conjugate beam method for beam rotations and deflections

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, March 27, 2017

Detailed methods for slump test to check the consistency of fresh concrete

This construction video briefly explains the importance of Slum Test and how it is used to examine the workability and conformity of fresh concrete.
The term ‘Slump’ can be defined as following two ways :-
1. A measurement of workability or fluidity of concrete
2. An indirect measurement of the conformity or rigidity of the concrete
Slump Test refers to the way of availing the conformity and & workability of fresh concrete. It is also utilized indirectly as a way of verifying whether exact amount of water is added to the concrete mix or not.
The test computes consistency of concrete in that particular batch. Consistency means the smoothness with which concrete flows. It is utilized to specify degree of wetness.
It belongs to the physical specifications of concrete that can impact the finesse, strength and durability.
ASTM C143 - Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete.
It stands for a test necessary for passing the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Field Technician Certification Program -- "Concrete Field Testing Technician—Grade I."
A Concrete Field Testing Technician—Grade I refers to an individual who has validated the knowledge and capacity to properly execute and record the results originated from seven basic field tests on freshly mixed concrete.
The program needs a working knowledge of the various ASTM test methods and practices which are described below:
  • C1064/C1064M - Temperature of Freshly Mixed Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
  • C172 - Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete
  • C143/C143M - Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete
  • C138/C138M - Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete
  • C231 - Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
  • C173/C173M - Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method
Watch the following video to view the detailed slum test process.

detailed slum test process

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, March 24, 2017

CE CALC – An exclusive online calculator for Civil and Structural Engineers

CE Calc Civil Calculator refers to a useful construction tool for civil engineering calculation. It is specifically designed for the civil and structural engineering professionals so that they fulfill their design requirements. This exclusive calculator can be applied to accomplish calculations toward various cihydrology, open channels, culverts, gravity sewer, pressure pipe, transmission lines, traffic/road geometry, surveying/earthwork, pavement, concrete floors and unit conversions.
The calculator facilitates a civil engineer to discover latest design calculations rapidly and easily referencing the most updated codes and standards.
Given below, some striking features of CE CALC Civil Calculator
Time of concentration and storm water runoff.
Open Channels:
Flow velocity, discharge, slope, weirs, Parshall flume and Froude Number.
Culvert selection and sizing, calculate headwater depth and outlet velocity.
Gravity Sewer:
Sanitary and storm sewer, velocity, discharge, slope head loss and pipe structural loads.
Transmission Lines:
Work out velocity head, minor losses, total dynamic head and pump properties.
Traffic/Road Geometry:
Passing distance, stopping distance, skidding distance, curve banking, horizontal curves, vertical curves and spiral curves.
Lattitudes and departures, azimuths, northings and eastings, area measurement, topographic leveling, earthwork volume and distance measurement.
Rigid and flexible pavement design by AASHTO and UFC design methods.
Concrete Floors:
Design of concrete floor slabs-on-grade using the UFC method.
Unit Conversion:
In-built unit conversion program, convert units of acceleration, angles, area, density, energy, flow, force, light, length, mass, power, pressure, temperature, torque, velocity and volume.
Click on the following link to download the calculator. 
Download Calculator
download the calculator

Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Different types of Loads and Forces functioning on Retaining Wall

Retaining wall design will contain any or all of loads and forces which are briefly described in the following sections:
1. Lateral earth pressure
2. Surcharge loads
3. Axial loads
4. Wind on projecting stem
5. Impact forces
6. Seismic earth pressure
7. Seismic wall self-weight forces
1. Lateral Earth Pressure Functioning on Retaining Wall
The primary objective of developing a retaining wall is to hold the soil. For this reason, soil lateral earth pressure is a vital factor in the design. Among various theories, sliding soil wedge theory is mostly recognized for measuring the lateral earth pressure.
The wedge theory implies that a triangular wedge of soil will fall down if retaining wall is disconnected unexpectedly and the wall has to withstand this wedge soil. From the Figure 1, we can view free body lateral forces performing on retaining walls.
Different types of Loads and Forces functioning on Retaining Wall
Coulomb and Rankine equations belong to most vital formulas which are used to compute lateral earth pressure:
The Coulomb method of Lateral Earth Pressure Calculation
This equation considers backfill slope, friction angle at wall face, rupture plan angle, and internal friction angle etc.
Different types of Loads and Forces functioning on Retaining Wall
Ka : coefficient of active pressure
Angle of internal friction: Angle of internal friction
Angle of backfill slope: Angle of backfill slope
Angle of friction among soil and wall: Angle of friction among soil and wall (2?3Angle of internal friction to 1?2Angle of internal friction is supposed)
Slope angle of the wall: Slope angle of the wall that is calculated from horizontal (same as 90 degree for vertical wall)
Besides, concerning flat level backfill soil, observing zero friction at soil-wall interface, and soil-sidewall is vertical, the coulomb equation is contracted to the following:
Different types of Loads and Forces functioning on Retaining Wall
To read the complete article, go through the following link.
Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Concept of Stress and Strain Curve/Diagram

This construction video tutorial will introduce you to the stress and strain curve/diagram for steel structures.
Definition of stress
When an applied force creates alteration in the dimension of the material, then the material is supposed to be in the state of stress. The stress can be detected by dividing the applied force (F) by the cross sectional area (A).
Definition of strain
When the dimension is altered in regard to the original dimension because of stress, it is called as strain. It is described with the symbol epsilon.
ε = x/ L
For a shear force, strain is stated with γ (gamma)
Stress strain curve belongs to a behavior of material when it has to withstand load. If a ductile material like mild steel has to pass through the tensile test, then it moves through different phases prior to fracture.
These phases are given below :-
1. Proportional Limit
2. Elastic Limit
3. Yield Point
4. Ultimate Stress Point
5. Breaking Point
The stress-strain diagram varies in form for different materials.
To acquire stress-strain diagrams, a graph or curve is drawn from the data that has been found in a tensile test. The modifications occurred in length can be detected and recorded through various strain measuring devices.

Concept of Stress and Strain Curve/Diagram

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Building Construction Illustrated, 5th Edition – An exclusive e-book for construction professionals

Francis D. K. Ching, the well-known Professor Emeritus of Architecture at the University of Washington in Seattle, has written an exclusive book alias Building Construction Illustrated, 5th Edition. This construction book is available in paperback and ebook.

The book provides useful guidance to the fundamental of building construction supported with a 3D digital building model for conversational learning.
Features comprise of a 3D model that demonstrates how building components are originated collectively in a final project.
• There are some evident and precise drawings which show the cutting-edge in construction processes and materials
• Addition of up-to-the-minute information on sustainability, consolidation of building systems, and application of new materials
• Inclusion of archetypal drawings which provide perfect motivation for designers and drafters
• Sheds light on the 2012 International Building Codes and 2012 LEED system
In order to purchase the book, click on the following link
Building Construction Illustrated, 5th Edition – An exclusive e-book for construction professionals

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, March 20, 2017

How bridge works to sustain various loads

This construction article focuses on uses and types of bridges.
How bridges balance forces
Things are moved through forces, but they also retain them stagnant. A bridge remains stand steels as all the forces operating on it are correctly in balance. In a nutshell, bridge designers can be described as force balancers.
A bridge extents over a river, valley, sea, or road. There is no direct support under the enormous deck (the primary horizontal platform) of a bridge. If the bridge is lengthier, it becomes heavy and bears lots of weight. So, the chance for collapsing is increased. Bridges can sometime collapse, but most sustain securely for a prolonged period as it cautiously balance two primary types of forces known as compression (a pushing or compressing force, operating internal) and tension (a pulling or stretching force, operating external), by dispersing the load toward abutments (the supports at each side) and piers (one or more supports in the middle). There exist different types of bridges, substantially all of them function by balancing compressive forces in some areas with tensile forces somewhere else, so there does not exist universal force to induce motion and provide damage.
Carrying loads
At the time of unloading, a bridge has to provide support to its own weight (the dead load), therefore the tension and compression in its structure become really static forces (ones that don't give rise to movement) that is adjusted slightly from hour to hour or day to day. Though, by characterization bridges bear fluctuating amounts of weight (the live load) from things like railroad trains, cars, or people, which can significantly raise the ordinary tensile or compressive forces. Rail bridges, as for instance, bend and flex each time when an overweight train passes over them and then "relax" over again once the load has elapsed.
To read the complete article, go through the following link.
How bridge works

Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Some useful construction tips to compute the sliding safety factor for cantilever retaining walls

This construction article is extracted from an exclusive article written by Javier Encinas, the renowned professional engineer Javier Encinas.
The article sheds light on how to compute the sliding safety factor for concrete or masonry cantilever retaining walls.
Retaining walls are specifically created to encircle soils among two dissimilar elevations. So, they have to primarily withstand the lateral pressures from the retained soil as well as any other surcharge. Cantilever walls are susceptible to sliding issues, specifically if constructed on inferior quality soils.
Cantilever retaining wall pressures
Pressures functioning on a retaining wall
Besides, to the retained backfill, retaining walls are dependent on surcharge loads at the top of retained mass. A surcharge belongs to a strip load. If the stem expands beyond backfill, the retaining wall has to withstand wind load. If the retaining walls are placed in seismic zones, the focus should also be given to seismic pressures.
The load has been used contains a definite effect on the wall. The backfill employs a triangular lateral pressure measured according to the equivalent earth pressure theory. The surcharge creates a constant rectangular pressure on the wall. The seismic pressure is trapezoidal, together with the greater pressure at the top. Due to the actions of these loads, a bearing pressure is created beneath the footing, as well as a passive pressure at the front of the wall.
Method for verifying the sliding failure mode
The wall will be moved to exterior by the horizontal pressures on the backfill side that will have a tendency to slide on its footing. The driving force from the assigned loads should be defied with an opposite friction force at the edge of the footing base and the foundational soil that is formed by the bearing pressure against the base.
Besides, the passive pressure against the front face of the wall and footing should also be taken into consideration. It will never happen that the natural soil will be unaffected throughout the construction, so usually the top portion of the soil cover for the passive force calculation is omitted.
To read the complete article, click on the following link
sliding calculation

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, March 17, 2017

Some useful construction tips to draw influence lines for truss members

This construction video is extracted from a lecture delivered by a construction professional. The video focuses on the importance of influence line for effective structural analysis as well as process for drawing influence lines for truss members.

This video exemplifies a truss bridge. The structure is undergoing a moving load. In order to design the structure flawlessly, the outcome of the moving load on each truss member should be determined.

Influence lines play an important role in designing beams and trusses applied in bridges & other structures where loads are transmitted across their span.
The influence lines demonstrate where a load will generate the utmost effect for any of the functions studied.The influence lines demonstrate where a load will generate the utmost effect for any of the functions studied.
The influence lines are applied even if the applied is not a unit load or if numerous loads are applied. To discover the consequence of any non-unit load on a structure, the ordinate results acquired by the influence line are multiplied by the magnitude of the actual load to be applied. The whole influence line can be scaled, or just the highest and smallest effects are accomplished along the line. The scaled highest and smallest belong to the critical magnitudes which should be designed for in the beam or truss.

Published By
Rajib Dey