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Friday, August 30, 2019

Some common issue in building plumbing system

Plumbing installations play a vital role in buildings since these supply clean water to several types of plumbing fixtures and then send used water to the sewage system. Water should be delivered uninterruptedly and safeguarded from contagion, and drain pipes should have sufficient diameter and no obstructions.

In this article, you will be familiar with common plumbing issues and how to get rid of them.

Preferably, plumbing installations should be done in an optimal way from the project design stage since restructuring a defective system in an existing building becomes complicated because there are several pipes implanted in floors and walls.

1) Defective Venting in Plumbing Lines

When there is not sufficient venting, flow is obstructed and fails to take away used water from fixtures quickly. Under plumbing systems, vents should arrange proper air movement into the pipes, but devoid of allowing odors out. The venting design also combines stacks which are extended to the rooftop, making sure that odors are discharged without affecting anybody.

2) Backflow

Backflow comprises of water movement opposite to the proposed direction in a pipe. The backflow occurs for the following reasons:

• Back siphonage means a cutback in upstream pressure. As for instance, water supply pressure is reduced with an abrupt surge in consumption.
• Back pressure means a surge in downstream pressure. As for instance, in high-rise buildings, gravity drive the water back that is stored in the piping system and the supply pressure should be considerably high enough to overcome this effect.

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Some common issue in building plumbing system

Published By
Rajib Dey

Guidelines for rebar detailing of RCC structures

Reinforcement Detailing or Rebar detailing is a detailed construction engineering process normally accomplished by the Rebar fabricators, structural engineering consultants or the contractors for generating ‘shop/placing’ drawings or shop drawings and bar bending schedule of steel reinforcement for construction. Architect/Engineers(A/E) produce ‘Design Drawings’ with the purpose of adding strengths with rebar size, spacing, location, and lap of steel.

Rebar Detailing is also known as Rebar scheduling, RC Detailing and Bar Bending schedule predation, RC Drafting, etc in different countries.

Objective of Rebar Detailing - The rebar detailing is done for the following purposes :

a) To produce an error-free Bar bending schedule, when fabricated should be accommodated in the concrete formwork devoid of any issue. The similar Bar Bending Schedule should be utilized for accounting and invoicing.

b) To develop a detailed Rebar placing drawing (known as Rebar Shop drawings). This Rebar placing drawing assists an Ironworker to place rebar perfectly in the site efficiently.

c) To allow the structural engineer to verify and approve when the structural design intent is precisely transformed into the Rebar Placing drawings and Bar bending schedules.

d) To perform a Rebar wastage analytics and minimize probable scrap existing in the Drawing level.

Standard Hooks: The term “standard hook” is defined as follow -

1. 180o bend together with an extension of minimum 4 bar diameters, but not below 65 mm at the free end of the bar.
2. 90o bend together with an extension of minimum 12 bar diameters at the free end of the bar.
3. For stirrup and tie anchorage.

For 16 mm φ bar and smaller, a 90o bend along with an extension of minimum 6 bar diameters at the free end of the bar,

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Guidelines for rebar detailing of RCC structures
Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Details of earthing system in building construction

In electricity supply systems, an earthing system or grounding system is circuitry that attaches the segments of the electric circuit with the ground and determines the electric potential of the conductors corresponding to the earth’s conductive surface.
Earthing System: Regulations for earthing system differ significantly between several segments of electric systems. Most low voltage systems attach one supply conductor to the earth (ground).
An earthing system is primarily applied for the following applications :-
1. To safeguard a structure from lighting strike, operating the lighting via the earthing system and into the ground rod in spite of moving through the structure.
2. It is a vital part of the safety system of mains electricity that resolves issues related to floating ground and sky voltage.
3. The most general ground plane for large monopole antenna and some other types of radio antenna.
Usages of earthing:
1. Safeguard human from lighting and earth fault situation.
2. Safeguard the premises from lighting and earth fault situation.
3. Offer low resistance and safe path for lighting and fault current.
4. All metallic enclosure and extraneous conductive parts remain at equipotential.
5. LV system earth
Functions of earthing:
1. Equipment earth – Path for fault current, reduce touch voltage, safeguard from electric shock.
2. Lighting earth – Low resistance path to disparate the current under lighting attack.
3. Telecom earth – Signal earth, minimize noise and interference, stable DC supply voltage and resist electric shock.
4. Computer earth – Minimize interference, retain supply voltage.
Two Classes Of Protection:
Class I protection – Application of barrier/insulation and connection of defending conductor to equipment metallic enclosure to give protection from electric shock.
Class II protection – Apart from basic insulation, supplementary layer of insulation should be provided to the enclosure. So, no irrelevant conductive part exists. The supplementary layer is not dependent on the basic insulation in order that under failing of basic insulation, it provides extra protection.
The following types of earthing are commonly found :-
a. Supply System – Neutral Earth
b. System Earth
c. Electrical Safety Earth
d. Lightning Earth
e. Generator Earth
f. Protection Earth (i.e. surge arrestor)
g. Telecom/computer earth
h. Shielding earth
i. Integrated earthing system (advocated)
j. Electrostatic earth (clean room/hospital)
Details of earthing system in building construction
Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Effect of segregation and bleeding on quality of concrete

Segregation in concrete: Segregation means the detachment of ingredients in concrete. In concrete, the following types of segregations mainly occur:-
1. Detachment of coarse aggregate from the concrete mixture,
2. Detachment of cement pastes from the concrete throughout its plastic phase.
3. Detachment of water from the concrete mix (Bleeding in concrete)
Concrete is formed by mixing cement, fine and coarse aggregates. In a standard quality concrete, is all the ingredients are grouped properly to develop a uniform mixture. Segregation in concrete is primarily occurred due to variations in specific gravities of the ingredients.
Specific gravity of Cement remains among 3.1-3.6g/cc, and for aggregate it remains among 2.6-2.7g/cc. Because of this variation, the aggregate is detached from the matrix and segregation in concrete occurred.
There are various other factors to create segregation in concrete :-
1. Moving concrete mixes for long distances.
2. Weak mix ratio, where adequate matrix does not exist to unite the aggregates.
3. When concrete falls from over 1m.
4. Vibrating concrete for a prolonged period.
Guidelines to reduce segregation in concrete:-
Segregation is managed properly with exact mix ratio.
Handling, placing, transporting, compacting and finishing of concrete in perfect manner.
With the addition of air entraining agents, admixtures and pozzolanic materials in the mix, the segregation is controlled to some extent.
Bleeding in concrete: Bleeding is a type of segregation in which existing water in the concrete mix is forced upwards owning to the settlement of cement and aggregate. Since specific gravity of water is low, the water may proceed upwards. Bleeding normally occurs in the wet mix of concrete.
Due to greater amount of water cement ratio, the bleeding is found in concrete. If the water-cement ratio is higher, the concrete becomes weak and as a result excessive bleeding happens.
The bleeding in concrete is not a cause of great concern when the rate of evaporation of water is identical to the rate of bleeding. Normal bleeding improves the workability of concrete.
When the concrete becomes completely plastic, bleeding is not injurious. However, concrete still remains in the plastic stage and it is subsidized and compacted in due course.
How bleeding impacts the stability of concrete :-
1. Since water is pushed upwards in bleeding, sometimes with this water, specific amount of cement proceeds together with water to the concrete surface. If the top surface is worked up with the trowel, the aggregate comes downward and cement paste is developed at the top surface and it is known as ‘Laitance in concrete.’ As Laitance is developed, the wearing strength of structure is reduced and the longevity of structure is hampered.
2. While directing to the top from bottom, water produces continuous channels. Because of these channels, concrete turns out to be porous and facilitates water to move, that develops water voids in the matrix and decreases the bond among aggregate and the cement paste.
3. If water is accumulated at the top surface of concrete, the surface finishing is deferred.
4. Concrete becomes porous and its consistency is affected.
5. Excessive bleeding results in rupturing the bond among the reinforcement and concrete.
Remedies to control the bleeding :-
1. Bleeding in concrete is managed with the inclusion of minimum water content in the concrete mix.
2. Allowing the application of air en-training admixtures in the mix.
3. By providing more cement in the mix.
Effect of segregation and bleeding on quality of concrete
Published By
Rajib Dey

Advantages & Disadvantages of Flat Slab

Normal process of design and construction is to support the slabs with beams and support the beams with column. It is known as beam-slab construction.
The beams help in minimizing the existing net clear ceiling height. Often, in warehouses, offices and public halls, the slabs are used as a substitute of beams and they are directly supported with columns. These types of slabs are known as flat slabs.
A flat slab stands for a one-way or two-way system with solidities in the slab at the columns and load bearing walls are known as ‘drop panels’ Drop panels function as T-beams over the supports. They raise the shear strength and the rigidity of the floor system against vertical loads, thus the economical span range becomes greater.
Normally, the height of drop panels remains about two times the height of slab. The plan dimensions of the drop panels are a minimum of 1/3 of the distance in the direction being considered, normally rounded to the nearest 100 mm.
Flat Slabs are useful for most of the construction and for irregular column layouts like floors having curved shapes and ramps etc.
Types of Flat Slab Construction - Following types of flat slabs are commonly used in construction:
1. Simple flat slab
2. Flat slab with drop panels
3. Flat slab with column heads
4. Flat slab with both drop panels and column heads
The major features of a flat slab floor are a flat soffit, simple formwork and smooth construction. The economical span ‘L’ of a reinforced concrete flat slab is roughly D x 28 for simply supported, D x 32 for an end span and D x 36 for an interior span. Pre-stressing the slab raises the economical span to D x 35, D x 40 and D x 45 respectively, where D stands for the depth of the slab without the drop panel.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Flat Slabs
• Easy formwork
• No beams—streamlining under-floor services outside the drops
• Least structural depth
• Normally, shear reinforcement is not necessary at the columns.
• Saving in the height of the building
• Construction time is reduced
• Application of prefabricated welded mesh
• Medium extents
• Normally not ideal for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions
• Drop panels may obstruct with larger mechanical ducting
• Vertical penetrations should circumvent area around columns
• For reinforced flat slabs, deflection at the middle strip becomes important.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Flat Slab
Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Basic differences among foundation & footing

Foundation: It is the portion of a building that is built up underneath the ground level and keeps direct contact with sub-strata. It transfers the complete load of the building to the subsoil in which it stands in such a manner that settlement of the soil is not collapsed in shear.
Footing: It is the bottom most part of a vertical structure (column, wall) that finally transmits the weight from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock.
Footing is mainly the segment of foundation of any modern structure.
Variation among footing and foundation
Given below, the basic variations among Footing and Foundation:
The footing is a formation that is in touch with the ground.
Foundation belongs to a structure that transfers its gravity loads to earth from superstructure.
Footing is analogized with the feet of the leg.
Foundation is compared with legs.
The footing refers to a type of shallow foundation.
Foundation is both shallow and deep.
Footing comprises of slab, rebar which are made of brickwork, masonry or concrete.
Foundation types comprise piles, caissons, footings, piers, the lateral supports, and anchors.
Footing reinforces support to a separate column.
Foundation stands for an extensive support since it provides support to a group of footings as a whole building.
A number of footings rest on a foundation.
Foundation is the support that sustains different types of loadings.
A footing remains under the foundation wall.
Foundations stand for the basement walls.
Footing directly transfers loads to the soil.
Foundation is directly related with the soil and passes it on the ground.
All footings are foundations.
Not all foundations are footings.
Basic differences among foundation & footing

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, August 26, 2019

Uses of prestressed concrete in civil engineering

Prestressed concrete is suitable for different types of structural systems which range from pre-tensioned and post-tensioned structures, both cast-in-place and precast, and other pre-stressed components along with normally reinforced concrete.
Pre-stressed and precast concrete is divided in following four major categories:
• Standardized Elements
• Fixed Cross Section Elements
• Fully Engineered Elements
• Precast Nonprestressed Elements
Standardized Precast Prestressed Elements
Pretensioned concrete beams and slabs are normally built up in recyclable steel forms in a precast plant. Though a humble amount of custom formwork is utilized at precast plants, but when standardized components are utilized, the quality becomes better and the costs are decreased.
They comprises of standard sections like single-T and double-T beams, box girders, hollowcore slabs, inverted T-beams, and bridge girders. With the capital investment, it is possible to build up and equip a precast plant with the concrete mixing equipment, forms, stressing beds, curing systems, and heavy lifting equipment.
To increase ROI, the forms and stressing facilities should be applied continually. By improving the production process, the precast pieces can be fabricated on a routine and regular basis.
The cost efficiencies of this type of fabrication allow the architects and engineers to choose the sections for an extensive range of applications and ensure accessibility and competitive cost. Hollowcore planks, single-T, and double-T beams are applied as floor elements in building construction.
Fixed Cross Section Elements
The design engineer takes the responsibility to find out the pre-stressing forces and tendon locations in fixed cross section situations. Two common fixed section design conditions belong to post-tensioned beams and slabs for developing or parking garage construction, and girders for bridge construction.
Other uses of fixed section components range from structures like water tanks and post-tensioned slabs on-ground.
Fully Engineered Elements
For fully engineered elements, there should be constant detailed engineering all through design and construction. Instances of fully engineered structures are segmental bridges, specialty transit structures, tanks, towers, stadiums, floating facilities, and unusual building construction. The design of these structures is based on significant engineering effort as well as on-site inspection.
The intricacy of these structures requires the basic understanding of structural behavior, loads, prestressing effects, and material behavior. Collaboration of efforts among engineers, precast plants, and general contractors is essential.
Precast Nonprestressed Elements
The significant variation in grouping is that pretensioned elements need significant plant capitalization and stressing beds. Precast pieces are fabricated on the jobsite or in a facility devoid of stressing beds and other equipment related to a plant operation. Tilt-up walls are good instances of on-site precasting.
If a small amount of prestressing is necessary for delivery, erection or final loads, it is arranged in the form of single-strand post-tensioned tendons. The instances of precast nonprestressed elements are architectural precast panels and tilt-up construction. Architectural precast panels are utilized either as structural elements or the exterior finish of buildings.
Uses of prestressed concrete in civil engineering
Published By
Rajib Dey

Some useful guidelines for RCC slab design

In this exclusive civil engineering tutorial, you will get some useful guidelines for designing any RCC slab.
A) Effective span of slab – It should be least of the two
1) L = clear span + d (effective depth)
2) L = Center to center spacing among the support
B) Depth of slab: The depth of slab is influenced by bending moment and deflection criterion. The trail depth is achieved with the following :-
Effective depth d = Span/((L/d) Basic x modification factor)
To get modification factor, the percentage of steel for slab is taken from 0.2 to 0.5.
The effective depth d of two slabs is also taken as cl.24.1,IS 456 on the condition that short span is 3.5m and loading class is <3.5KN/m2.
Categories of supports: Fe-250 – L/35, Fe-415 – L/28
Continuous support: Fe-250 – L/40, Fe-415 – L/32
The following thumb rules are commonly applied :-
One way slab d = (L/22) to (L/28). Two way simply supported slab d = (L/20) to (L/30). Two way restrained slab d = (L/30) to (L/32)
Load On Slab: The load on slab contains dead load, floor finish and live load. The loads are measured according to unit area (load/m2).
Dead Load = D x 25 kN/m2 (Here D denotes thickness of slab in m). Floor finish (taken as) = 1 to 2 kN/m2. Live load (taken as) = 3 to 5 kN/m2 (based on the occupancy of the building)
Nominal Cover
For mild exposure – 20 mm
For moderate exposure – 30 mm
When the diameter of bar does not go beyond 12 mm or cover is decreased by 5 mm. For main reinforcement up to 12 mm diameter bar and for mild exposure, the nominal cover is 15 mm.
Least reinforcement: The reinforcement in either direction in slab should not remain under :-
0.15% of the total cross sectional area for Fe-250 steel. 0.12% of the total cross sectional area for Fe-415 & Fe-500 steel
Distance of bar: The maximum distance of bars should not surpass. Main steel – 3d or 300 mm which is lower. Distribution steel – 5d or 450 mm whichever is lesser
Here, d denotes the effective depth of slab. The least clear spacing of bars should not be under 75 mm (desirably 100 mm). Highest diameter of bar. The highest diameter of bar should not go over D/8, here D denotes the total thickness of slab.
Some useful guidelines for RCC slab design

Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Calculation Method of Concrete Quantity for a Staircase

In order to work out the quantity of a staircase, it is required to determine the concrete volume for the followings :-
• Steps and waist slab of 1st flight
• Steps and waist slab of 2nd flight, and
• Landing
Concrete volume for 1st flight of the staircase: The calculation is done based on the following dimensions :-
Riser = 6 inches
Tread = 10 inches
Length of a step = 4 feet
Number of steps = 9
The thickness of the waist slab = 6 inches
Concrete volume for the waist slab: To get the concrete volume for the waist slab, the inclined length of the waist slab be measured first. Inclined length of waist slab can be measured from the architectural plan.
The horizontal length of a waist slab is determined by,
=number of steps x tread
= 9 x 10”
= 7′-6”
The height of the landing top from floor is,
= number of riser x height of riser
= 10 x 6″ [number of riser = number of steps = 1]
= 5 feet
Therefore, the inclined length of the waist slab should be as follow :-
=√{(horizontal length)2 + (Height)2}
= (7’-6”)2 + (5’)2
= 9’ (round up)
Therefore, the concrete volume for the waist slab should be calculated with the following formula :-
= inclined length of waist slab x width of waist slab (width of a step) x thickness of waist slab
= 9’ x 4’ x 6”
= 18 cubic feet
Concrete volume for steps: Since steps come as triangular shape, so the volume of a step should be as follow :-
= ½ x tread x riser x length of a step
= ½ x 10” x 6” x 4
= 0.84 cubic feet
As there are 9 numbers of steps in a flight, therefore, the concrete volume for the steps of the first flight should be as follow :-
= 9 x 0.84
= 7.56 cubic feet
Therefore, the entire concrete volume for the 1st flight of the staircase should be computed as follow :-
= Waist slab concrete + steps concrete
= 18 + 7.56
= 25.56 cubic feet
Concrete volume for 2nd flight of the staircase: In case the 1st flight and 2nd flight are equivalent in drawing, the concrete volume will be similar. That is,
= 25.56 cubic feet
Concrete volume for the stair landing: The calculation is done on the basis of the following dimension :-
Length of landing = 8’-6”
Width of landing = 4’-6”
The thickness of landing = 6”
Therefore, the concrete volume for the landing will be as follow :-
= 8’-6” x 4’-6” x 6”
= 19.12 cubic feet
Therefore, the total concrete volume for the staircase should be as follow :-
= 1st flight concrete + 2nd flight concrete + landing concrete
= 25.56 + 25.56 + 19.12
= 70.24 cubic feet
Calculation Method of Concrete Quantity for a Staircase
Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, August 23, 2019

Details about structural and non structural defects in buildings

Concrete has diversified nature. It casts in place by including or excluding reinforcement. It is also precast or pre-stressed to attain necessary strength. For this purpose, there should be adequate knowledge on the behavior and constituents based on which the concrete is produced.
There should not be any type of laxity in any of its phase like placement, design & maintenance as these can create deterioration and resist concrete to accomplish its proposed functions. Given below, some vital factors which can weaken the quality of concrete:
1. Accidental loading
2. Chemical reaction like sulfate attack, alkali carbonate reactions, alkali silica reactions etc
3. Erosion of steel reinforcement
4. Inferior construction detailing
5. Erosion
6. Freezing and Thawing
7. Shrinkage
8. Settlement
9. Fire and weathering
Flaws in Building Design: Due to deficient structural design, the concrete is uncovered to flexural and shearing stresses and as a result spalling and cracking of concrete are developed. Any sudden modification in cross section of any member can result in raising the stress concentration in that member that leads to cracking of concrete.
Deflection is considered as one of the significant part in structural design. If there exist any issue in its consideration throughout design, that can produce cracking of concrete. Insufficient arrangement of drainage and expansion joints throughout the design also leads to deterioration and spalling of concrete.
Flaws During Construction: Flaws throughout building construction vary from inappropriate mixing, placing and curing of concrete. Detachment of shoring & formwork can also produces cracks in concrete.
When extra water is provided in concrete to enhance the workability of concrete, the water cement ratio is raised significantly and it can reduce the strength of concrete. Inappropriate alignment of formwork produces corrosion in concrete.
Structural Defects in Building Construction - The following structural defects are found in buildings:
1. Cracks in foundation (substructure)
2. Cracks in floors and slabs (superstructure)
3. Cracks in Walls (superstructure)
These above defects are occurred due to the following factors:
1. Inappropriate soil analysis
2. Inappropriate site selection
3. Application of defective materials
4. Inferior work
These structural issues can be resolved with perfect design and planning.
Non Structural Defects in Building Construction - The following non structural defects are common in buildings:
1. Defects in brick work
2. Dampness in old structures
3. Defects in plaster works
So, it is found that minimum design and construction defects lead to minor cracking or spalling which can weaken the concrete and result in collapsing of the structure. To get rid of these issues, proper care and attention should be taken in designing, detailing and construction of concrete structure.
Details about structural and non structural defects in buildings
Published By
Rajib Dey

Commonly used Indian Standard Codes (IS codes) for civil engineers

IS stands for Indian standard. Each country possesses their own code book identical to that India contains IS code book for RCC, steel structure. The IS codes includes numerous standards and methodology for construction, raw material used, structural analaysis and other provisions.
It comprises of some data based on which a civil engineer design the structure. It contains some pre defined formulae and data.
Civil engineers who perform construction activities of big projects generally should be well versed with a wide array of IS codes since such projects require different types of construction materials in several structures like buildings, roads, steel structures, all sorts of foundations etc.
Given below, detailed lists of some IS codes which are extensively used by construction engineers.
IS 456:2000: Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice (Download link
IS 383:1970: Specifications for fine & coarse aggregate from natural sources for concrete (Download link
IS 2386 (Part I) 1963: Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part I: Particle Size and Shape (Download link
IS 2386 (Part II) 1963: Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part II: Estimation of deleterious materials and organic impurities (Download link
IS 2386 (Part III) 1963: Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part 3: Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking (Download link
IS 2386 (Part IV) 1963: Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part 4: Mechanical properties (Download link
IS 2386 (Part V) 1963: Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part V: Soundness (Download link
IS 2386 (Part VI) 1963: Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part 6: Measuring mortar making properties of fine aggregates (Download link
IS 2386 (Part VII) 1963: Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part VII: Alkali Aggregate Reactivity (Download link
IS 2386 (Part VIII) 1963: Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part VIII: Petrographic Examination (Download link
IS 2430-1986: Methods for Sampling of Aggregates for Concrete (Download link
IS 4082-1996: Recommendations on stacking and storage of construction materials and components at site (Download link
IS 2116-1980: Sand for masonry mortars – Specifications (Download link
IS 269-1989: Specification for Ordinary Portland Cement, 33 Grade (Download link
IS 8112-2013: Specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement (Download link
IS 12269-1987: Specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland cement (BI-LINGUAL) (Download link
Commonly used Indian Standard Codes (IS codes) for civil engineers
Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Some vital guidelines for measuring staircase dimensions and designs

A staircase mainly includes a series of steps which involve a tread (the horizontal portion, where the foot stands) and a riser (the vertical portion).
In every step, there are one or more landings, handrails, and a small nosing. The latter obtrudes from the tread over the lower step, facilitating to raise its size devoid of inclusion of centimeters to the overall dimensions of the staircase.
By using the following formula, find out the exact dimensions of a convenient and efficient staircase in accordance with its use.
2 Risers + 1 Tread = 63-65 cm
The required space to attain these optimal dimensions is unavailable sometimes, but it's suggested to approach them as much as possible.
A schematic illustration of a steep and low-transit staircase.
(2 x 21) + (1 x 21) = 63 cm
A schematic illustration of an optimal staircase.
(2 x 18) + (1 x 28) = 64 cm
A schematic illustration of a loose staircase, desirably for exterior application.
(2 x 13) + (1 x 39) = 65 cm
Sample measurement of a staircase that should be 2.60 meters high.
1. Workout the required number of steps - Assume an ideal riser of 18 cm, the height of the space is divided with the height of each step. The result should always be rounded up:
260/18 = 14.44 = 15 steps
2. Workout the height of every riser - The height of the space is divided with the number of steps already acquired:
260/15 = 17.33 cm height for each riser.
3. Workout the width of the tread - It can be calculated with the following formula:
(2 x 17.33 cm) + (1 x tread) = 64
Each tread will be computed as 29.34 cm
The consequential staircase will contain 15 steps of 29.34 cm of tread and 17.33 cm of riser.
Based on the use and local regulations, there should be a minimum width of 80 cm for stairs in single-family homes, and more than 1.00 meters in public buildings.
Preferably, a stairway shouldn't contain in excess of 15 steps in a row. After 15 steps, a landing should be arranged. It's suggested that a landing is calculated minimum the same as 3 treads.
The height among the steps and the ceiling should remain 2.15 meters at minimum. The height of the handrail differs among 80 and 90 cm from each step.
Some vital guidelines for measuring staircase dimensions and designs
Published By
Rajib Dey