## Saturday, December 30, 2017

### How to make calculation for rebar with Rebarcalculator

Rebarcalculator is used for making calculations/conversions of rebar from weight(MT), Surface are(M2), No. of bar(12 meter length each) and total Length(meter) in any combinations.

To compute from Weight(MT) and transform it into Surface are(M2). As for instance Dia 10 MM & Quantity 5 MT, choose the unit MT from green panel and then opt for the convertible unit as output ie. M2 from Blue panel. Press calculate to obtain the required conversion.

It is mostly effective for site engineers, Managers, Project leaders in rolling, civil construction and coating industry to calculate cost and operational detail.

If you find this is useful, please comment on my blog and suggest of similar or any other areas in your business which can be improved with such software/applications.

One can access Rebarcalculator at free of cost. It is compatible with windows but does not support Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, or AIX.

Online Rebar Calculator

To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.

Video Source: Calculated Industries

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, December 29, 2017

### Pros and Cons of a cavity wall Construction

Cavity wall made of double walls and a hollow space exists among them. A wall that is built up with two leaves or skins having a space or cavity among them is titled as a cavity wall. It is generally developed as an outside wall.

Cavity wall thickness of an outside wall and inside wall are equivalent or the inner wall may be deeper as compared to the outer wall. Cavity wall hollow never surpasses 100mm and it is consistent through the height.

The objective of building up a cavity wall is to resist the infiltration of rain to the inner surface of the wall. It is indispensable that cavity walls should not be bridged in any way as this would deliver a passage of moisture.

The masonry skins of a cavity wall belong to brickwork, blockwork or similar. Various types of masonry materials are applied on either side of the cavity. The cavity is primarily empty but is filled with insulation through several methods.

Lots of times are required to build up cavity walls and so little bit expensive to construct as compared to walls having the two skins bonded together. But they have good sound resistance capacity and come with superior sound and heat insulation and most significantly resistance to rain infiltration.

To maintain the longevity, strength and appearance, a damp resistant course of brick or block should be used for building up the cavity wall above ground level.

To resolve this issue, it is required to fill the cavity underneath ground level with a weak mix of concrete so that a solid wall is formed on the ground.

Benefits of cavity wall construction: Damp Prevention: Cavity wall controls the prevention of dampness from outer surface to interior of the building in an efficient manner as compared to a solid brick wall of the similar thickness.

Heat Insulation: As air is a bad conductor of heat, a cavity wall reduces the heat transmission significantly to sustain unvarying temperature inside the building.

Sound Insulation: Sound waves can move rapidly in solid media relating to air, the cavity wall constructions significantly reduces the noise from outside as well as inside the building to get rid of external disturbances.

Economical: The construction cost of a cavity wall is about 20% less than the construction cost of a solid wall having the same thickness.

It has the capability to resist a driving rain in all situations from entering to the inner wall.

Drawbacks of cavity walls

a. A high standard of design and workmanship is required to make a good construction wall
b. Good supervision is necessary throughout construction.
c. The requirement of a vertical damp proof course to all openings
d. The construction cost is little higher as compared to a standard one brick thick wall.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Thursday, December 28, 2017

### How to create rate analysis of civil works

Each construction project is segregated into various numbers of activities. Each activity is supported with types of civil or construction works.

As for instance, when a building is constructed there are various activities like excavation or earthwork, concrete work, masonry work, wood work such as doors and windows, plumbing, flooring, waterproofing, finishing work like plastering, painting and distempering.

The Activity earthwork is segregated into different types depending on depth and type of soil. As for instance, an excavation of 1.5m deep in soft soil, an excavation of 3m deep in hard soil. Similarly, concrete work is segregated into several types on the basis of its mix proportions and its placement.

As for instance, M25 reinforced concrete is suitable in foundation, M30 reinforced concrete work in columns, slabs etc. Similarly, there are various small civil works in each construction project.

The construction project cost is estimated on the basis of each works related to each construction activity. Thus it is necessary to compute the cost of each small works.

Rate analysis of Civil Works or Building Works is the determination of cost of each construction work per unit quantity.

This cost includes the cost of materials, labors, machinery, contractors profit and other diverse insignificant expenses essential for the specific work that should be executed in unit quantity.

As for instance, cost of 1 cubic meter of M20 RCC work in slab, Cost of 1 cubic meter of excavation in soft soil of 1.5m depth, cost of 1 square meter of plastering of 20mm, cost of 1 square meter of painting work with specified paint in 2 layers or 3 layers as necessary.

Compute the cost of materials in rate analysis as composite of cost of material at origin, its transportation costs, taxes. The rate of labor is set with skill of the labor, like skilled labor, semi-skilled and unskilled labor. The cost of materials and labors differ from place to place. Thus, the cost of each construction work fluctuates from place to place.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Wednesday, December 27, 2017

### How to estimate the weight of a round shaped steel bar

In this construction video tutorial, you will learn the detailed method for estimating the weight of mild steel round bar with the plug chugging formula.
The formula is represented as W = D2/162.198xL
This formula is very useful in determining the weight of mild steel bar in Kg.
Here, D denotes dia of bar in mm and L denotes length of bar in meters.
In this video, a round shape cross section bar is selected and it’s length is taken as L and diameter is D.
Weight = Volume x Unit Weight
W = V x ꙍ (Volume = X-section area x length and omega is the unit weight of material)
As the bar is round, the cross sectional are will be πD2/4
So, putting the value we get the following:-
W = πD2/4 x L
For mild steel, unit weight is taken as 7850 kg/m3 or 222.32 kg/ft3
Putting the value, we get W = πD2/4 x L
= πD2/4 x L x 7850 = 6165.375583 x D2 x L/10002
= 6165.3755 x 10-3 x D2 x L
= 1/162.198 x D2 x L
So, W = D2/162.198 x L
To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.
Video Source: SL Khan

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, December 26, 2017

### Online demonstration of QuickSuite 4.0 – A robust software for structural engineer

IES has developed QuickSuite 4.0, a powerful software for perfect structural design.
This product is comprised of four standalone tools which range from QuickRWall, QuickFooting, QuickMasonry, and QuickConcreteWall. These products can be set up collectively or any single product can be chosen for downloading as per your choice.
QuickRWall: QuickRWall is mostly recognized among structural engineers for designing retaining wall efficiently. It will facilitate the structural engineers to create superior quality wall design in quickest possible time. The reports are supported with full equations and intermediate data is instantly accessible for full checking. QuickRWall contains good graphical interface and very user-friendly.
Wall Configurations:
• Cantilever Retaining Walls
• Gravity Retaining Walls (ACI Chapter 22)
• Restrained Walls, Basement Walls, Propped Cantilevers
• Tapered (Battered) or Stepped
Wall Materials:
• Concrete,
• Masonry
• Mixed Concrete & Masonry
QuickConcreteWall: QuickConcreteWall is specifically designed for reinforced concrete shear walls and is considered as a handy tool for detailing a concrete wall depending on in-plane forces.
Complicated ACI interaction checks are accomplished instantly while adjusting design parameters and observe the results. Complete rebar detailing is provided in a productivity-quick format.
QuickFooting: Concrete spread footing (single column pad), is imported from VisualAnalysis. Design and examine reinforced concrete footings under a single column devoid of creating a complicated analysis model of the building.
It provides the following advantages :-
• Will verify different types of footings simultaneously (for worst case).
• Automatic sizing and detailing (optional).
• Offset pedestal from footing center
• Checks footing, pedestal, and interface.
• Stability checks: Bearing pressure (net & gross), overturning, sliding, and uplift.
• Complete units flexibility.
QuickMasonry: It is an individual tool of masonry components that can deal with several structural components inside a single project file. The QuickMasonry "Project Management" tool is utilized to design a entire series of lintels and walls, for a single building in one project file, by adhering to the most updated masonry design specifications as well as a series of remarkable features.
The software deals with the following masonry components :-
• Lintels
• Bearing Walls
• Panel Walls (loads out of plane)
• Shear Walls
• Pilasters
• Columns
• Beams
Go through the following video to view the online demonstration of the software.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, December 22, 2017

### What are the variations among Cement vs Mortar

The variation among cement and mortar is that cement refers to the binding agent, while mortar is a product formed with cement, sand and lime.

Both these materials have separate objectives like cement becomes usable with water and creates a bond with other elements to shape one solid object, while mortar is effective for retaining bricks or stone jointly, and cannot remain detached like concrete. Cement is a material that is applicable to form mortar grout and concrete etc.

Each mortar can be utilized in different ways, grout or concrete blended with cement, like grout can fill gaps among tiles, but if the joints in the blocks contain missing sections, mortar should be applied. Cement comes in different categories like portland, white or masonry cement. The objective of Portland cement is to develop an object for structural usages.

Mortar may comprise of either Portland cement with lime, or masonry cement, lime and sand, accumulates masonry units into structural systems. The compressive and bond strength as well as the absorption capacity is obtained by the mix ratio of cement and the other constituents.

There are bonding enhancers in mortar which are utilized for close the gapping among stone, brick or concrete blocks throughout building. It is also applied for repairing and renovating purposes. Mortar is used as a compact paste, and it turns out to be rigid after a short span to make a firm seal among stones or bricks so that air and moisture can’t get into the structure. Mortar can be easily fixed with joint reinforcements, etc, in the bricks.

It contributes to construct a building with strong structure and elegant look. There are various types of mortars like Portland mortar formed with Portland cement, sand and water. Another type is known lime mortar that facilitates the moisture to proceed freely, and pass away from the surface. Mortar has good longevity devoid of persistent repairs. Mortar is formed by mixing cement with lime and sand whereas cement is formed by mixing with sand.

In brief:
1. Cement stands for a binding agent to develop mortar, concrete and grout.
2. Mortar is formed by adding water, sand and lime to cement.
3. Mortar is generally utilized for closing the gaps among bricks and stones to resist moisture from leaking in.
4. Cement comes in various forms like Portland, masonry cement etc.
5. There are various categories and colors of mortar like terracotta or white etc.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Thursday, December 21, 2017

### Step for determining the quantity of bitumen & aggregates for road surface dressing

This construction video tutorial sheds light on the detail method to workout the quantity of bitumen and aggregates toward road surface dressing (Top Layer of the road).

The area of the road is taken as, Area = 20m2
The density of the road surface dressing on top should taken as 12 mm and it is demoted as TC

Here, the value of TL is unknown. TL denotes loose thickness that should be maintained after compaction
TL is based on the following factors :-
Initial Voids = 50% (existence or air or air pockets i.e. gaps in aggregates)
Final Voids = 20%
Wastage = 10%
Suppose that Bitumen will fill 60% of the final voids.
TC is defined as compacted thickness
To determine the thickness of TL, the following formula is used :-
TC = 50% in TL + 20% in TC
Now convert the value to decimal by dividing with 100 = 0.5 TL + 0.2 TC

TC – 0.2 = 0.5 TL = 0.8 TC = 0.5 TL

TL = 1.6 TC

putting the value of compacted thickness, we get

TL = 1.6(12) = 19.2mm
So, loose depth is 19.2 mm

Now, after adding 10% wastage, we get = 19.2mm + 19.2(0.1) [convert to decimal value by dividing with 100]
= 21.12mm

So, loose thickness should be 21.12mm to attain 12mm compacted thickness

To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.

Video Source: F&U-FORYOU

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Wednesday, December 20, 2017

### Various types of concrete mixers

The concrete is built up through a concrete mixer by mixing cement with aggregates like sand or gravel, and water. The concrete mixers attain the consistency of the mix as well as set the mix keeping the consistency unchanged.

The process for mixing the material of concrete may vary but it should be accomplished carefully to make sure that the consistency is maintained for allotment of materials in concrete mass. It can be evaluated with uniform color and reliability of concrete.

The machine that is employed for mixing concrete is called as the mechanical concrete mixer, or just concrete mixer.

Given below, two main types of Concrete Mixers:

01. Continuous Mixer: Continuous mixers are mostly found in large constructions like dams, bridges, etc., where large masses of concrete are utilized and the constant flow of concrete is needed.

02. Batch or Drum Mixer: Batch or Drum mixer is mostly recognized in construction sites. It contains a rotating drum with blades or baffles inside it. Under this type of mixer, all the materials of the desirable proportioned mix should be entered into the hopper of the rotating drum and then drum on being revolved at a specific speed combines the materials through a series of blades arranged inside. The produced mix is finally released from the drum and transported for use.

There are following two Types of Batch Mixers.

• Tilting Mixers: Tilting mixers contain a conical or bowl-shaped drum having vanes inside. They are suitable for mixes of low adaptability and for those comprising of large size aggregate. The mixing chamber that is called as drum, is designated for discharging.

• Non-Tilting Mixers: In non-tilting mixers, the axis of the mixer always remains in horizontal direction. The discharge is accomplished either by implanting a chute into the drum or by changing the direction of rotation of the drum to the reverse or hardly by partition of the drum.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, December 19, 2017

Download Project Cost Estimator Excel Template at free of cost to work out the Project Cost or Project Budget to pass on to your client. It is a vital template in Project Management and often it is indicated as budget, cost effort estimation or cost analysis excel template.

Project Cost Estimator Template will facilitate to recognize team efforts as well as project cost for client to submit and control the project.

Benefits of applying Project Cost Estimator Excel Template for Project Management.

Cost Estimator Excel Template is a vital part of project development life cycle (SDLC). The project cost estimator is made after the project imitation for requirement gathering.

It is essential for both the development team and client to estimate the effort and cost to manage the project based on the budget. It facilitates to recognize various stages of project development and how much is costing the each phase.

The preliminary project plan will talk about about project liability and time line to distribute the each module of the project. But the cost estimator will give details about time spent in each stage and the amount of costs to the client.
Some useful steps to form project estimator excel template:
• Split your project into various main phases. As for instance Project Design, Project Development, Project Testing, Project Documentation and Project Management/ Maintenance
• Segregate all main phases into sub phases
• Calculate the time to finish each sub phase
• Work out number of associates (developers, analysts, testers,etc…) necessary to finish each phase
• Calculate if any other cost is contained in project development ( as for example material, software, training,etc…) or project management
• Now generate the template with the above information
Video Source: F&U-FORYOU
• Finally arrange the complete estimates of the Hours, FTE and Project Cost

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Monday, December 18, 2017

### Details of design and construction process of Burj Khalifa

Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa is known as the tallest skyscraper in the world in and it’s excavation work was started in January 2004. It took 1325 days for the completion of the structure.

The superstructure is supported with over 165 stories. The final height of the building is 2,717 feet (828 meters). The 280,000 m2 (3,000,000 ft2) reinforced concrete is used for Dubai tower and employed for retail, a Giorgio Armani Hotel, residential and office.

Structural System Description: 3D Structural Analysis Model of Burj Dubai TowerBurj Khalifa contains "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals which have great fire resistance capacity as well as individual air supplies to cope up with any emergency situation. With the support of reinforced concrete structure, the building becomes stronger as compared to steel-frame skyscrapers.

Designers intentionally constructed the structural concrete in Burj Dubai as "Y" shaped in plan with the purpose of minimizing the effect of wind forces on the tower along with the intension to retain the structure simple and support constructability. The structural system is defined as a "buttressed" core.

Every section contains its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns and supports the others through a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. So, a tower is built with enormously rigid lateral and torsion capacity. An inflexible geometry is utilized with the tower that organized all the common central core, wall, and column elements.

Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building. The setbacks are arranged through the Tower's grid, so that the building stepping can be completed by positioning the columns over with walls beneath to set a smooth load path. It facilitates the construction to get rid of the issues resulting from column transfers.

The setbacks are arranged in such way that the Tower's width alters at each setback. The benefit of the stepping and shaping is to "confuse the wind'1. The wind vortices don’t get structured as at each new tier the wind experiences a dissimilar building shape.

Structural Analysis and Design Facts: The center hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls set the torsional resistance of the structure same as a closed tube or axle. The center hexagonal walls are supported with the wing walls and hammer head walls which operate as the webs and flanges of a beam to withstand the wind shears and moments.

Outriggers at the mechanical floors facilitate the columns to contribute to the lateral load resistance of the structure; so, all of the vertical concrete is applied to support both gravity and lateral loads. The wall concrete designated strengths vary from C80 to C60 cube strength and employ Portland cement and fly ash.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Saturday, December 16, 2017

### Brief overview of concrete mix ratio

If cement is blended with sand, stone/aggregates and water, a paste will be developed and it can be applied to stick the building materials collectively. This paste is known as concrete.

The ration upon which the cement, sand, stones or aggregates are amalgamated, defines the strength of the concrete mix. Depending on these ratios, different types of concrete grades are accessible in the market. These concrete grades range from M10, M20, M30, M35, etc.

“M” denotes “mix”. Mix characterizes concrete with indicated ratios of cement, sand and aggregate. And the number after “M” denotes compressive strength of that concrete mix in N/mm2 after 28 days. As for instance, for M30 grade of concrete mix, its compressive strength after 28 days should have been 30 N/mm2.
Concrete mix ratio table
Given below, the standard chart table that displays different grades of concrete mix design together with their relevant ratios of cement, sand and aggregates required.
It is found that volume of sand is always retained half of that of aggregates in these standard mix designs. These proportions can be estimated and sustained with buckets or some other standard cubes which are easily utilized during the project. It is essential to keep up uniformity in each and every concrete mix produced throughout the entire project.
The site engineer/supervisor should take the responsibility to examine and implement it.
Water content ratio in concrete mix: The strength & adaptability of concrete is mainly dependent on water content. The adaptability of concrete (more fluid) will be increased with the higher quantity of water but it will decrease the concrete strength.
Contrarily, if the amount of water is low, adaptability of water will also be decreased. So, it becomes complicated to arrange such concrete in the structure. Required amount of water may differ for same volume of concrete for different grades of concrete. So, equilibrium should be maintained in the construction site throughout concrete mixing.

Video SourceCivil Engineering

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, December 15, 2017

### Some useful civil engineering notes

This construction video tutorial is very useful for civil engineering students as it contains 10 objective types of questions on civil engineering and their solutions.

Some of the sample questions & their answers are given below :-

As per pertinent IS code, the weight of the timber will be treated as perfect if there is 12% moisture content in it.

The strength of the timber will be optimal if applied load is parallel to grain.

A standard brick should not engross water by weight in excess of 20% (after immersed in water for 24 hours)

When ‘p’ denotes the standard consistency of cement, 0.85 percent water is utilized in performing the initial setting time test on cement.

The lime mortar is normally formed with hydraulic lime.

The compressive strength of a standard good 1:3 portland cement – sand mortar after the completion of 3 days of curing, should not be under 175 kg/cm2.

The split tensile strength of M15 grade concrete is 15 to 20% of its compressive strength.

For brief explanation, watch the following construction video tutorial.
Video SourceTechnical Atyachar

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