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Monday, October 15, 2018

Benefits of post lintel structure

Post & Lintel is an easy form of construction that includes posts to bear horizontal beams or lintels found in timber-framed work or in columnar and trabeated architecture.

Stonehenge is a good example of post and lintel construction.

Post & Lintel System:

1. Post lintel belongs to a frame structure.
2. It is made of concrete materials by blending aggregates, gravel, sand and cement with water.
3. It is light weight or heavy weight structure.
4. The proportion of mixing comes as 1:2:4, 1:3:6 & 1:1.5:3 etc.
5. Currently, it can be utilized to form steel with regards to several codes and specifications like 80ksi, 60ksi & 40ksi.
6. 60ksi steel is mostly found.

Characteristics of post & lintels:

a. Post & lintels are illustrated as frame structure but columns and louvers.
b. Solid and void relationship is minor.
c. The invert beam is visible from above.
d. Existence of continuous beam.
e. The columns are arranged along the age of the building.

Benefits of post-lintel:

1. Post lintel structure in the outside facades enhances the appearance of the building.
2. Often, the enormous or inflexible masses are handled gently with the use of formwork of the post lintel to provide an elegant appearance.
3. Bigger space (column to column distance) of building can be designed in this system.
4. For the greater extent, the height of the lintel gets larger and for this a large distance appears as small due to the unavailability of clear height.

5. Sometimes, this issue produces visual disruption that can be resisted in flat slab.
6. The construction cost of this system is quite elevated for the laborious casting process of beam and slab and the application of R.C.C
7. The maintenance cost of this system is low as compared to other structural system because of it’s endurable characteristics.
8. Ingression of heat gets decreased in this system since the heat is transmitted from the slab to beam and then from beam to floor.
9. The control of openings allows the fewer amount of heat in the building.

10. Because of free flowing plan, the light and ventilation can easily be entered into the building.
11. This structural system contains less self-loads that can minimize the risk of earth quake.
12. The system can resist buckling or bending effect of the building from the powerful wind flow.
13. The system has good fire resistance strength for the construction material (R.C.C).
14. The system has fewer scope of failure as compared to other structural system.

Benefits of post lintel structure

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, October 13, 2018

The stirrups commonly found in column design

The design of stirrups for column is created on the basis of different factors like changeable cross-sections, the number of longitudinal reinforcement bars and the load bearing strength. Stirrups in column construction are generally called as vertical ties or transverse reinforcement.

The following types of stirrups or ties are found in column construction:

1. Helical Reinforcement: The helical reinforcement is different from the lateral ties since the lateral ties contain spacing among individual ties. In helical reinforcement, the quantified value is pitch, rather than spacing.

The helical reinforcement offers more ductility and flexibility to the built up column with regard to lateral ties. They can effectively support the longitudinal reinforcement. With the insertion of helical reinforcement, the resistance capacity of the column structure against buckling become superior.

a) Ambient temperature of 27 °C (80°F) or greater; and
b) Evaporation rate that surpasses 1 kg/m2/h

The helical reinforcement is also applied as spiral reinforcement. Helical bars are suitable for seismic design. By the influence of seismic loads, the concrete affixed to the helical reinforcement is stripped off preliminary. It facilitates to give a warning sign concerning the structural condition of the column.

The helical reinforcement is a perfect example in respect of uniformly distributing loads as compared to the normal rings (lateral ties).

2. Lateral Ties: The lateral ties stand for transverse reinforcement to develop a separate ring with a fixed spacing among each link. Based on the column cross-section and the number of vertical or longitudinal reinforcement bars applied, the lateral stirrups vary from two-legged stirrups, four-legged stirrups or six-legged stirrups etc.

Given below, the detail information on various lateral tie configurations for several number of vertical reinforcement bars. The configurations are dependent on the ACI 315-99 recommendations.

1. Lateral Tie Configuration for 4- Bars: The tie is configured for 4 numbers of vertical column bars. It is a standard type of configuration applied for simple column design. This configuration is known as 2 legged stirrups column type.

2. Lateral Tie Configuration for 6- Bars: The first arrangement is observed when the spacing of vertical bars are under 150mm ( below 6”). If the spacing is in excess of 150mm, the second arrangement is observed where crossties are used.

3. Lateral Tie Configuration for 8- Bars: The first arrangement is done with the standard 8 number vertical reinforcement arrangement. Here the spacing is under 6”. If the spacing is in excess of 150mm, two crossties are utilized.

The third arrangement is known as bundled bars arrangement. Under this arrangement, two bars are combined at the corners. So, no cross ties are required. Highest 4 numbers of bars are combined.

4. Lateral Tie Configuration for 10- Bars: In this case, it is required to provide cross-ties apart from the square ties. It is also organized in bundled bars. Here bundle of 2 bars is arranged at four corners and two remaining bars are supported with the help of cross ties.

5. Lateral Ties for different column cross sections: The arrangement for 16 bars employ diamond ties. The process is very complicated to fabricate diamond ties perfectly and as a result it is ignored. The process is also complicated to arrange them properly. This tie arrangement is not suggested by ACI 315 because of the complications related to it. But, in some countries, standards utilize this arrangement for simple column design.

In A 16 bars column arrangement according to ACI 315 4 bundled bars can be arranged at each corner.

The stirrups commonly found in column design

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Rajib Dey

Friday, October 12, 2018

Benefits of air entrained concrete

Air entrainment is the formation of tiny air bubbles in concrete. The concrete produced with this method is called air entrained concrete.

Air entrainment is provided in concrete with air entraining Portland cement or air entraining agents like admixture. The amount of air in such concrete generally remains among four to seven percent of the volume of concrete.

It is calculated with galvanometric method, volumetric method and pressure method. The air bubbles lessen internal pressure on the concrete by arranging chambers for water to spread when it freezes.

The objective of air entrainment is to enhance the strength of the hardened concrete, particularly in climates prone to freeze-thaw as well to raise workability of the concrete while in a plastic state.

Method - In the following ways, the air is entrained into the concrete:

1. By applying gas forming materials like aluminium powder, zinc powder and hydrogen peroxide.
2. By applying surface active agents that minimizes surface tension. They range from natural wood resins and their soaps, animal or vegetable fats or oils, alkali salts of sulfonated or sulphated organic compounds.
3. By applying cement dispersing agents.

Advantages - Given below, some of the advantages of the entrained concrete:

a. Workability of concrete is raised.
b. Impact of freezing and thawing is decreased significantly.
c. Bleeding, segregation and laitance in concrete are also minimized.
d. Entrained air makes the strength of concrete better against sulphate attack.
e. Minimizes the chance of shrinkage and crack development in the concrete surface.

Drawbacks - Given below, some of the drawbacks of air entrained concrete:

1. The strength of concrete is reduced.
2. The application of air entraining agent enhances the porosity of concrete and as a result the unit weight is decreased.
3. Air-entrainment in concrete should not be accomplished if the site control is not proper. It occurs as the air entrained in a concrete fluctuates with the alteration in sand grading, errors in proportioning and workability of the mix and temperatures.

Benefits of air entrained concrete

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Rajib Dey

Thursday, October 11, 2018

Activities and liabilities of Quantity Surveyor and Quality Manager

Quantity Surveyor: The prime intention of the quantity surveyor is to measure the amount of materials required for building work as well as estimate the cost of the materials.

Usually, a quantity surveyor performs the following activities :-

• Commercial omission of site
• Formulation of financial reports, budgets and forecasts
• Supervision, training and development of some junior staff
• Job review of assistant staff
• Utilization of health and safety requirements

• Fulfillment of paperwork as desired by the CSIs/procedures
• Synchronization of enquiries for and evaluation of subcontractors (in conjunction with designers, buyers and other disciplines as required)
• Assuring that all subcontract documentation effectively describes the detailed requirements
• Insurance cover (quotations and implications)
• Calculation and disclosure of monthly valuation for certificate
• Preparation of claims, variation orders and day work
• Settlement of new rates for supplementary works
• Calculation of finished work and validation of compliance with specified requirements for subcontractor payment.

Quality Manager: The purpose of the quality managers is to make sure that the product or service that an organization renders is suitable for purpose, reliable and satisfies both external and internal requirements.

A quality manager undertakes the following responsibilities :

• Offers technical guidance on construction materials
• Provides instructions to line management on quality management matters helping agents or project managers with the formulation of their quality plans for individual projects
• Inspecting the execution of quality systems with regard to the CSIs/procedures by audit and surveillance, and instructing proper management of any corrective actions necessary and supervising their implementation
• Implementing or arranging audits on vendors, suppliers and subcontractors in association with purchasing managers
• Guiding all staff on their quality management responsibilities.

Activities and liabilities of Quantity Surveyor and Quality Manager

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Rajib Dey

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Importance of Self-leveling Overlays in concrete construction

Self-leveling overlays are set up rapidly. It is possible to place and finish more product each day, each worker as compared to any other cast-in-place decorative product.

Self-leveling overlays become effective when substrate conditions are less than standard: obsolete or worn concrete surfaces, unflat or unlevel floors, and concrete surfaces getting damaged with other floor treatments.

Self-leveling overlays are normally used in commercial building lobbies and corridors, retail spaces, residential floors, restaurants, and warehouse floors.

Self-leveling overlay products are susceptible to atmosphere conditions. Due to this, most applications are kept in controlled indoor environments. Specific jobsite conditions should be administrated with the purpose of attaining the following results :-

• Keeping uniform temperature
• Managing air movement to remove drafts
• Protecting from the direct sunlight to the work area
• Maintaining even relative humidity all through the jobsite

There should be a good bond among the subfloor and an overlay, so exact mechanical preparation of the accessible slab is vital. Bead-blasting equipment and diamond grinders are commonly applied tools but scarifiers are also utilized, particularly for thicker placements. The size of the required equipment is based on the size of a project concerning productivity.

Self-leveling overlay products are formed by mixing cement, fine aggregates, pozzolans, and admixtures comprising of superplasticizers, polymers, shrinkage compensators, and other components. Manufacturers' mixing instructions need applicators to mix a proper amount of water with each bag of material to attain the desired properties.

Initially, the material is placed on a sub slab, the average working time is only about 12 minutes, accompanied quick strength formation. Regular application thicknesses commence at about ¼ inch but can go beyond 2 inches devoid of shrinkage or cracking problems.

The toughened product is very solid and long-lasting and it contains compression strengths of roughly 6000 psi, and attains good flexural strengths.

When inherent colors are added to self-leveling overlays, the final product demonstrates strong color devoid of any efflorescence.

To get more details, go through the following link

Importance of Self-leveling Overlays in concrete construction

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Consequences of Wrong Structural Design

This construction article sheds light on the causes of improper structural design.

Defects in Construction

Improper size of the Columns

If the size of the columns is 9”x9” and the building is likely to be built up to G+2 floors that is really unfavorable for the structure. It may cause structural failure and in due course structural collapse.

9”x9” size columns are suitable when it is required to build up a ground floor structure with M15 grade concrete. If it is necessary to build up another floor (G+1), the least size of the column should not be under 9”x12” with M15 grade concrete.

If it is required to utilize smaller columns (9”x9”); M20 grade concrete must have been utilized and the construction should not be started unless the client gives approval.

Incorrect alignment of the columns

The columns are not arranged in a straight line. When a wall is going to be developed connecting the columns, it becomes complicated to have a straight wall. It is so inaccurate. It is confusing how the beams will rest on the columns.

Incorrect wall construction

The construction process of the outside wall is also imperfect. The walls are not merged at a particular corner. If there is not a column construction in a corner, two beams approach together and rest on each other to provide strong support to the structure.

Consequences of Wrong Structural Design

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Rajib Dey

Monday, October 8, 2018

The role of Site Engineer & Project Engineer in a construction project

Site engineers and project engineers frequently work in tandem on a job performing various things. Both play important role for major projects with equally significant liabilities.

Comparing Site Engineers to Project Engineers: Both the site engineers and project engineers take diverse liabilities for accomplishment for different types of construction projects.

Site engineers have sound technical skills which can be applied for specific engineering aspects of the project. Project engineers supervise the general operation of the project. They acquire the resource orders, deal with clients, and coordinate with designers and other engineers.

Given below, the basis differences among site engineers and project engineers :-

Liabilities of Site Engineers vs. Project Engineers

Site engineers perform according to a designer's plans, engineer's specifications and city codes to execute their jobs. Conversely, the project engineers perform very intimately with management and planners in an consultative manner to produce blueprints that fulfill the objectives of the clients as well as city and state codes.

Site Engineers: The site engineers may possess an office somewhere, but in several occasions they are active at the job site ensuring specific jobs are accomplished perfectly and with adherence to code.

These engineers examine that a building's wiring is completed properly, the plumbing will not leak, or the walls will not fall. They also have to rationalize modifications to orders, redrawing alternate plans and settling technical problems instantly and within the budget.

Given below, the liabilities of a site engineer:

• Performing as the top technical advisory on construction site
• Surveying, arranging and leveling the area for work
• Allowing planning data among managers, engineers and designers
• Tutoring trainees as well as junior engineers

Project Engineer: Project engineers have to accomplish all the paperwork, process the orders, and take care of the day-to-day operation of the site. They get in touch with all supervisors to overcome the issues before they spread.

These engineers set up timelines for supervisors to abide by. Project engineers have to supervise and coordinate with site engineers on the technical properties of the project. These professionals are accountable for status and budget reports together with personnel assignments.

Given below, the liabilities of a project:

• Evaluating of all plans and proposals prior to meet with management
• Scrutinizing bids for new projects
• Evaluating and examining of all drafts and blueprints
• Arrangement of cost estimates for materials, equipment and labor

The role of Site Engineer & Project Engineer in a construction project

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, October 6, 2018

Common types of walls found in construction

The following types of walls are generally found in building construction.

Types of Walls:
Load Bearing Walls - Precast Concrete Wall, Retaining Wall, Masonry Wall, Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls, Engineering Brick Wall, Stone Wall

Non-Load Bearing Wall - Hollow Concrete Block, Facade Bricks, Hollow Bricks, Brick Walls, Cavity Walls, Shear Walls, Partition Walls, Panel Walls, Veneered Walls, Faced Walls.

Given below, the details of these walls.

Load Bearing Walls: Load bearing wall belongs to a structural component. It bears the weight of a house from the roof and upper floors and transmits the weight to the foundation. It provides support to the structural members like beams, slab and walls situated over floors. A wall that is situated directly over the beam is known as load bearing wall. The purpose of load bearing wall is to bear the vertical load. On contrary, if a wall doesn’t contain any walls, posts or other supports directly over it, it is prone to be a load-bearing wall.

Load bearing walls also bear their self weight. This wall is normally situated over one another on each floor. Load bearing walls are utilized as interior or exterior wall. This type of wall will often be perpendicular to floor joists or ridge. Concrete is a useful material to support these loads. The beams enter directly into the concrete foundation. Load bearing walls inside the house is likely to run the equivalent direction as the ridge.

Various types of load bearing walls:
Precast Concrete Wall, Retaining Wall, Masonry Wall, Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls, Engineering Brick Wall, Stone Wall.

Non-Load Bearing Walls: Non-load bearing wall means a wall that doesn’t allow the structure to stand up and retain itself. It doesn’t deal with floor roof loads over. It is a framed structure. Normally, these belong to interior walls whose purpose is to separate the structure into rooms. They are constructed lighter.

The non-load bearing walls can be eliminated devoid of risking the safety of the building. Non-load bearing walls are recognized with the joists and rafters. They are not intended for gravitational support for the property. This type of wall is inexpensive. This wall is also known as “curtain wall”.

Types of Non-Load Bearing Wall:
Hollow Concrete Block, Facade Bricks, Hollow Bricks, Brick Walls

Cavity Walls: The cavity wall comprises of two individual withes which are formed with masonry. These two walls are called as internal leaf and external leaf. This wall is also called as a hollow wall. The purpose of these walls is to minimize their weights on the foundation. The walls function as good as sound insulation. Cavity wall offers superior thermal insulation as compared to any other solid wall since the space is completely filled with air and lessens heat circulation. They contain a heat flow rate that is 50 percent that of a solid wall. It is very cost-effective as compared to other solid walls. It has good fire resistance capacity. Cavity wall facilitates to get rid of noise.

Shear Walls: It stands for a framed wall. The prime objective of the wall is to withstand lateral forces which generate from the exterior walls, floor, and roofs to ground foundation. The shear wall is effective for large and high-rise buildings. The main ingredients of this wall are concrete or masonry. It contains a sound structural system to withstand earthquake. It offers stiffness in the direction. The construction and application are easy in shear walls. It is situated uniformly to minimize adverse effects of a twist.

Partition Walls: It is suitable for segregating spaces from buildings. The wall is hard and made of brick or stone. It is a framed construction. The partition wall is attached with the floor, ceiling, and walls. It has good strength to bear its own load. It defends against impact. It is durable and strong to support wall fixtures. Partition wall functions as a sound barrier and it has good resistance capacity against fire.

Panel Walls: It is a non-bearing wall among columns or pillars that are supported. The panel is set up with both nails and adhesive. The paneling design choices comprise of rustic, boards, frame. Paneling is done with hardwoods or inexpensive pine. Prior to set up panel walls, the space should be painted.

Veneered Walls: The material is retained through a veneered wall. The brick or stone are main ingredients of the veneered walls. The wall is only one wythe thick. It became the norm when insulation is necessary in the interior walls for building codes. It is light weighted. Less time is required for building up the veneered walls.

Faced Walls: It is a wall where masonry facing and backing are attached to make use of common action under load. The installation process is very simple.

Common types of walls found in construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, October 5, 2018

Some useful tips on concreting in hot weather

The quality of concrete is affected by severe weather conditions (intense heat or cold, and humidity deviations). If concreting is done in hot weather, proper precautions should be taken to combat all the adverse effects of extreme ambient temperature.

Definition of hot weather for concreting: As per guidelines provided by American Concrete Institute (ACI) vide ACI-305R-10, hot weather means job-site conditions that speed up the rate of moisture loss or rate of cement hydration of freshly mixed concrete, along with the following:

a) Ambient temperature of 27 °C (80°F) or greater; and
b) Evaporation rate that surpasses 1 kg/m2/h

Canadian Concrete Design code (CSA A23.1/.2) employs the similar ambient temperature for hot weather (27 °C).

Challenges of Hot Weather Concreting

How concrete is impacted with hot weather: The water is a prime ingredient in concrete. When the temperature is raised, the rate of vaporization is also increased. So, adequate quantity of water is required in concrete production to cope up with hot weather condition.

The following issues are also occurred due to hot weather condition:

1- Accelerated slump loss leading to the addition of water on the job-site,
2- Increased rate of Setting resulting in placing and finishing difficulties,
3- Increased tendency for thermal and plastic cracking,
4- Critical need for prompt early curing,

5- Difficulties in controlling entrained air,
6- Increased concrete temperature resulting in long term strength loss.

Precautions for Hot Weather Concreting: These precautions should be taken throughout concrete production and delivery, and will enhance the stability performance of concrete to get rid of unwanted cracking.

1- Apply materials and mix proportions which contain good resistance capacity against hot-weather conditions.
2- Chill the concrete or one or more of its constituents.
3- The uniformity of concrete should allow quick placement and consolidation.
4- Minimize the time of transport, placing and finishing as far as possible.
5- Schedule concrete placements to control exposure to atmospheric conditions (i.e. at night or all through good weather conditions).

Common Solutions for Cooling Materials: The common process to be followed for chilling concrete is to reduce the temperature of the concrete materials prior to start of mixing.

The aggregates and mixing water should be retained as cool as possible since these materials significantly affect the concrete temperature after mixing as compared to other materials. In severe hot condition, a segment of water is substituted with ice to reduce the temperature. Curing of concrete is vital for decreasing the adverse effects of hot weather on the quality of concrete.

Some useful tips on concreting in hot weather

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Rajib Dey

Thursday, October 4, 2018

Details of Sand Compaction Piles

Sand compaction piles provide lots of benefits like enhancing the durability of ground, controlling liquefaction, minimizing settlement and equivalent applications. Under this system, a hollow steel pipe is pushed into the ground. The bottom is ceased with a collapsible plate down to the necessary depth and then pipe is stuffed with sand. The pipe is detached when the air pressure is driven opposing the sand inside it.

The bottom plate opens throughout removal and the sand backfills the vacuums formed previously at the time of pushing the pipe. The sand backfill resists the soil that encircles the compaction pipe from falling while the pipe is withdrawn. All through this process, the soil is solidified.

Based on the system provided, two types of sand compaction piles exist. One is vibratory system having vibro-hammer and another is a non-vibratory system having forced lifting or driving device.

The vibro-hammer that is utilized in this method can create problem with vibration and noise to the encompassing environment. So, it is not recommended to apply this method in the urban areas or at areas adjacent to existing structures.

To get rid of these issues, a system with a non-vibratory Sand compaction pile method should be employed that does not need vibration on the driving device to infiltrate into the ground. The equipment comprises of a sand compaction pile driving device that is applied as a base machine and a forced lifting or driving device containing a rotary drive motor to revolve the casing pipe.

Non-vibratory Sand compaction method:

• Arrange the casing pipe to the planned location.
• With the use of the forced lifting or driving device, set up the casing pipe into the ground at the time of rotating.
• The sand is supplied through upper hopper as soon as the pipe attains the necessary depth.
• Casing pipe is pulled up and as a result the sand is pressed out to the void with compressed air.
• The casing is then removed together with the compaction of the pressed out sand pile to expand it.
• The method is reiterated unless the sand piles are created to the ground surface.

Design of sand compaction piles is based on the following factors :-

• Strength of the sand column
• Piles and soil are responsible for equivalent vertical deformation

Pros and cons of sand compaction piles: The main benefit of these sand piles is that the sand used is inexpensive as compared to other similar ground improvement methods like stone columns.

The construction process of the sand columns is very quick. Once, the hole is formed, it’s completely supported by casing throughout construction that restrains the chance of collapsing the structure.

Sand compaction piles contains a low stiffness with regards to other methods. So, the greater quantity of weak soil should be replaced. These piles do not contain adequately high permeability to function since effective vertical drains all through earthquakes.

Sand compaction piles are useful for making pervious embankment foundations stronger against liquefaction or impervious foundations against durability issues during an earthquake.

Details of Sand Compaction Piles

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Benefits of compressive strength of concrete & factors impacting compressive strength

Concrete becomes leading usable material as soon as water is added to it. The strength of concrete is mainly dependent on aggregates, while cement and sand are responsible for the characteristic of binding and workability together with flowability to concrete.

Compressive strength means the capability of the material or structure to provide resistance against compression. The Compressive strength of a material is based on the capability of the material to withstand failure that appears as cracks and fissure.

With compressive test, the push force enforced on the both faces of concrete specimen and the maximum compression borne by concrete devoid of failure is recorded.

The purpose of concrete testing is to deal with the Compressive strength of concrete as it facilitates to measure the concrete strength to protect gainst Compressive stresses among structures while other stresses like axial stresses and tensile stresses are developed with reinforcement and other means.

In technical term, Compressive Strength of concrete is explained as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete cubes @28 days.

Compressive strength of Concrete and its advantages:-

Concrete is formed by mixing sand, cement, and aggregate. The strength of the concrete is based on several factors which range from individual compressive strength of its materials (Cement, Sand, aggregate), quality of materials applied, air entrainment mix proportions, water-cement ratio, curing methods and temperature effects.

With Compressive strength, the entire strength of the concrete as well as information on the above mentioned factors can be obtained. By initiating this test, it is possible to analyze the concrete strength psi and quality of concrete formed.

The compressive strength of concrete is influenced by the factors given below:-

Coarse aggregate: Concrete becomes uniform by blending aggregates, cement, sand, water and different other admixtures. In spite of perfect mixing, some micro cracks may occur because of variations in thermal and mechanical properties of coarse aggregates and cement matrix, which results in collapsing of concrete structures.

In concrete, the size of aggregate is a key factor for compressive strength. When the size of aggregate is raised, then the compressive strength will also be increased.

But later on, it is discovered that bigger size of aggregates can raise strength in preliminary stage but the strength is decreased greatly. It happens because of the abridged surface area for bond strength among cement matrix and aggregates and lower transition zone.

Air-entrainment: Air entrainment in concrete is a useful feature to avoid damages because of freezing and thawing. Later on, multidimensional benefits of air entrainment lead to improve the workability of concrete at lower water/cement ratio.

When the required workability is attained at lower water content, the concrete contains superior compressive strength which consecutively results in creating light concrete with superior compressive strength.

Water/Cement ratio: Excessive water is injurious to the strength of concrete. Cement is considered as the major binding material in concrete that requires water for hydration process, but the water quantity is constrained to about (0.20 to 0.25) % of cement content. The excess water is useful in case of workability and finishing of concrete.

When the water in the concrete matrix gets dried, it departs large interstitial spaces between aggregate and cement grains. This interstitial space in turn creates primary cracks throughout compressive strength testing of concrete.

Go through the following article, to get more details

Benefits of compressive strength of concrete & factors impacting compressive strength

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, October 1, 2018

What should be the qualities for becoming a successful civil engineer

In order to become a successful civil engineer, the following qualities are essential :-

1. TESTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS: An efficient civil engineer should be well versed with various test methods of building materials. Given below, the details of some crucial test methods :-

Concrete Test: Slump test, compression test, split tensile test, soundness etc.
Soil Test: Core cutter test, compaction test, sand replacement test, tri axial test, consolidation test etc.
Bitumen Test: Ductility test, softening point test, gravity test, penetration test etc.

2. EXAMINATION OF SOIL: Prior to build up a construction, different types of soil tests are accomplished to define the settlement and constancy of soils. Therefore, as a civil engineer, one should possess adequate knowledge with these tests to carry on at the job site.

3. APPLICAIONS OF SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS: Each civil engineer should have clear conception on how to apply various surveying instruments like the total station, theodolite etc. These instruments are specifically designed for marking and measurements.

4. STANDARD CODES USED IN CONSTRUCTION: Each country should contain their standard safety specifications (eg: Is Code) for construction associated works. The construction works of new buildings should abide by the rules and processes indicated in the standard codes. if not, there are chances for collapsing of the structure any time.

5. BAR BENDING SCHEDULE: Bar bending schedule is a vital chart for civil engineers. It offers the reinforcement calculation of RC beam like cutting length, type of bending, the length of bending etc.

6. DRAWING AND DESIGN: Drawing and design are considered as the elementary part of a running project. It offers all the necessary specifications of that project. Each site engineers should possess the quality for evaluating such drawings and designs.

7. COMPUTATION AND BILLS: A civil engineer should have the skills to produce the estimation and bills in a construction project.

8. QUALITY CONTROL: With proper quality control, the profit of the project is raised and the cost is decreased. Therefore, a engineer should be well versed with quality control process.

9. ON SITE MANAGEMENT: A engineer should have adequate knowledge with form-work, concreting, safety measures etc.

10. COORDINATION WITH LABOR: As a civil engineer, one should know how to manage the labors in a job site.

What should be the qualities for becoming a successful civil engineer

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Published By
Rajib Dey