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Saturday, November 17, 2018

Get some easy to follow tips for executing brick masonry from Floor to roof

Brick masonry work is one of the most vital part of building construction. In this informative construction article, you will learn how to accomplish the complete brick masonry work from Earth beam to roof.
The following four major steps are involved in brick masonry work :-
1. up to basement
2. up to sill level
3. up to lintel level
4. up to roof level.
Brick masonry up to Basement:
Prior to erect brick masonry, the most crucial task is to finish all adjoining column up to basement.
It is recommended to execute the column rising work prior to brick masonry otherwise the following problems may occur :-
While erecting brick wall, shedding of mortar should be provided in to the column bottom to make it rigid and not smoothly detachable.
In next day, as soon as the shuttering work is completed, some saw dust from different shuttering materials like plywood, timber also shedding in to the column bottom. They can’t be detached easily after shuttering.
When the column concrete is arranged after the completion of the brick masonry, the water in the concrete is absorbed with dry brick wall and a dry concrete is placed there devoid of adequate water cement ratio and it leads to a weak structure.
Therefore, the exact method is to initially execute the column work and after that accomplish the brick wall.
Initially, cleanse the entire earth beam with water and ready surface. Employ semi solid cement slurry on it. Spatter the brick with water. Chip the column sides by chisel and make the column surface rough so that a perfect binding is formed with brick joint.
Initially, erect the brick masonry as a reference pillar similar to a benchmark in all corners by applying the plump, set square and verify each opposite brick wall corner with level for each 3 courses. Alter the thickness of the mortar to retain the proper level. Abide by the remaining unless it attains the basement.
There will be 2 options just like above. Any one method can be applied at corners and in cross wall extension.
In the 1st method, there should be no weak straight joints. Mortar can be easily provided.
In the 2nd method, there should be weak straight joint. Mortar can't be easily provided for progressing further.
Once the corner reference wall is finished, each course can be formed one by one by attaching a strong thread among the two benchmark and thus the whole basement will be finished easily.
To get more detail information, go through the following link youtoobuild.blogspot.com

Get some easy to follow tips for executing brick masonry from Floor to roof
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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, November 16, 2018

How to calculate mason, labor for brick masonry construction with help of thumb rule

In this construction video tutorial, you will learn how to compute the mason as well as labor toward a 1st class brick masonry construction with the help of thumb rule.

A thumb rule refers to a principle having extensive application that is not projected to be exactly perfect or authentic for each situation. This method can be easily applied for making approx calculation or recollecting some value, or for making some determination.

It should be noted that the quantity of required labor will be gradually increased from ground floor to first floor to second floor etc.

Thumb rule is a constant value that is taken from the earlier construction work i.e. how much volume is covered by the labors employed in earlier projects. All the volumes are summed up to find out the average volume.

In ground floor, first floor and second floor, the volume of total area is taken as 150 m3

Ground floor :-

Mason = Volume x thumb rule (for mason) = 150 x 0.71 = 107 numbers
Now, suppose the charge for one mason = 1100 rupees
So, the cost for mason will be 107 x 1100 = 117, 700 rupees


Labor = 150 x 1.18 (thumb rule for labor) = 177 numbers
Suppose, one labor charge 800 rupees
Therefore, cost of labor = 177 x 800 = 141,600 rupees


Similar process should be followed for 1st floor and 2nd floor. Here, the value of thumb rule will be increased as the steps are increase.

To learn the calculation for 1st and 2nd floor, watch the following construction video tutorial.

How to calculate mason, labor for brick masonry construction with help of thumb rule

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, November 15, 2018

Some useful guidelines for constructing parapet wall

Parapet wall stands for a protection wall that can resist the collapsing from terrace to ground. Different types of parapet walls are found which range from brick wall masonry parapet wall, wooden handrail, iron grill etc.

Size of parapet wall:

1. Thickness of parapet wall should be minimum 9''. (full brick parapet wall)
2. Half brick parapet wall is not recommended for use.
3. Height of the parapet should be minimum 3'0''.


Once the centering and shuttering from roof slab bottom is detached, some deflection may happen at mid span of roof slab (positive bending moment). Similar thing will happen at support like negative bending moment.

With a view to prevent negative bending moment at support, huge amount of loads are required as downwards. In case of constructing the parapet wall as half brick wall, the roof can’t be prevented from uplifting. If the parapet wall is constructed as minimum 9'' thickness and minimum 3'0'' height, the roof slab can be prevented from uplifting. Therefore, different types of cracks at bottom of ceiling will be captured. To get rid of uplifting of roof, the centering & shuttering should be eliminated once the entire full brick parapet wall is constructed.

If the first floor is extended in future, the existing parapet wall should not be dismantled in case the wall is constructed as 9'' thick.

Assume, the parapet wall is constructed as half brick wall, now it is required to demolish the current parapet wall up to roof and make it as 9'', therefore, extra money will be incurred up to sill level of first floor.

While erecting half brick parapet wall, brick pillars should be arranged at regular interval ( 5 to 6 feet). Inner surface of parapet wall does not include flat surface since lots of offset will be created. Therefore, some problems will arise in waterline and sanitary plumping works.

Water from pump and discharge from water tank will be influenced with various offset produced with half brick parapet wall.

No tie exists for half brick parapet wall. As a result, wind pressure may provide some effects. Sliding of parapet wall may also happen.

If the column height is terminated for the height of the parapet wall (3 feet), it is required to dismantle for overlapping in future first floor construction. Adjacent Brick parapet wall will also be affected. If the height of parapet wall remains 3 feet, the column height should be increased for extra height for future overlapping. Then the column and parapet wall will be protected from over damaged.

Conclusion:
It is recommended to construct full brick parapet wall for minimum height of 3 feet devoid of half brick parapet wall.
There should be some provision for column for future overlapping.


Some useful guidelines for constructing parapet wall

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Common types of cracks in reinforced concrete column

Usually, Four types of cracks are found in reinforced concrete column which range from diagonal cracks, horizontal cracks, splitting cracks, corrosion cracks. The cracks happen in columns due to improper design, defective construction or overloading, erosion of reinforcement, isolated settlement of foundations, creep and shrinkage.

Cracking in reinforced concrete column may result in loosing of strength, consistency, longevity, and adversely impact aesthetics.

Types of cracks found in concrete columns:

1. Diagonal Cracks: If there are diagonal cracks in reinforced concrete columns, they encircle the whole face of column anywhere along its height. Because of insufficient load bearing strength of the columns, inadequate cross-section and inadequate reinforcement steel.

Diagonal Cracks significantly impact the structural soundness and therefore it should be monitored carefully.

2. Horizontal Cracks: Horizontal crack in reinforced concrete column is generally found at the beam-column joint, and on column face where tensile stress is massive. Columns with insufficient moment resistance strength, inadequate reinforcements, or disposition of installed reinforcement may lead to horizontal cracking owning to the effect of shear force and direct load and uniaxial bending.

Finally, horizontal cracks significantly decrease the shear strength of the column and as a result there is high risk of failure. So, it should be dealt with instantly and carefully.

3. Splitting Cracks: Splitting cracks in reinforced concrete column belong to short parallel vertical cracks having non-uniform width. These types of cracks may occur in columns with insufficient steel reinforcement, and low concrete quality. Splitting cracks in concrete columns originated because of attaining its maximum load bearing strength.

The ultimate Load bearing strength of the column is exceeded when concrete cross section is not enough or reinforcement ratio is inadequate or combination thereof.

4. Corrosion Cracks: Corrosion cracks in concrete columns are formed along the line of reinforcements. These types of cracks are usually homogeneous in width and expand as the column is ageing.

Probable reinforcement erosion and insufficient bond among the concrete and steel bars lead to erosion reinforcement in concrete columns. If these types of cracks are not dealt with properly, the erosion of reinforcement will be increased at a rapid rate.

Common types of cracks in reinforced concrete column

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Some useful tips for footing excavation measurements

In this informative construction video tutorial, you will learn how to make calculation for earthwork excavation on the basis of elementary thumb rules. Besides, you will also learn how to make cross examination at the time of estimation.

This video is very useful for building engineer or civil site engineer.

Normally, earthwork is necessary for all the civil engineering projects roads, railways, earth dams, canal bunds, buildings etc.

This earthwork may range from either excavation or earth filling or sometimes both will reach out to as per the required shape and level.

Fundamentally, the volume of earthwork is measured from length, breadth and depth of excavation or filling.

The following items are included in earthwork :- Excavation, Backfilling, Disposal of surplus earth

Here, the calculation is done on the basis of IS Code 1200 for BOQ.

The calculation of earthwork billing is done in the following ways :-

1) Mode of measurement of billing – Types of measurement used for billing of excavation. It is done with the formula like Length x Breadth x Height/Depth

2) Different types of billing – a) R.A. Bill (Running Account Bill)
b) Find Bill


To get more details about the calculation of earthwork excavation, go through the following video tutorial.

Video Source: CE&T-Civil Engg & Technology

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, November 12, 2018

Benefits of post-tensioning concrete slabs in building

Post-tensioned concrete slabs in buildings provide various benefits over reinforced concrete slabs & other structural systems toward both single and multi-level structures. Described below, some of the advantages of the slabs :-

Longer Spans: Longer spans are utilized to lessen the number of columns. It leads to bigger, column free floor areas which significantly enhance the adaptability of application for the structure as well as leads to greater rental returns.

Entire structural cost: The complete cost of materials, labor and formwork which are essential to build up a floor is decreased for spans higher than 7 meters and consequently leads to huge cost savings.

Minimized floor to floor height: Thinner slabs are utilized for the similar imposed loads. The decreased section depths facilitate least building height together with consequent savings in facade costs. As a substitute, toward bigger buildings, it facilitates more floors to be developed inside the original building envelope.

Deflection Free Slabs: Unwanted deflections under service loads are virtually removed.

Water-resistant slabs: Post-tensioned slabs are designed to remain free from cracks and as a result water-resistant slabs should be formed with proper design, detailing and construction. The selection of concrete mix and curing method together with standard workmanship are also very important.

Early formwork stripping: The earlier stripping of formwork and curtailed backpropping requirements facilitate rapid construction cycles as well as fast reprocessing of formwork.

Materials Handling: The decreased material quantities in concrete and reinforcement significantly offer benefit to on-site carnage requirements. The stability of post-tensioning strand is roughly 4 times that of traditional reinforcement. So, the whole weight of reinforcing material is considerably minimized.

Column and footing design: The decreased floor dead loads are applied to create cost-effective design of the reinforcement concrete columns and footings. In multi-storied buildings, decreased column sizes may raise the floor net rentable area.

Benefits of post-tensioning concrete slabs in building

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, November 6, 2018

Some vital points to be remembered before purchasing ready mix concrete

The ready mix concrete is better as compared to the ordinary concrete mix since it needs less labour, time, efforts and cost. It facilitates to retain homogeneous quality during the work and provides the high speed of concrete construction.

With ready mix concrete, various types of issues like inferior workability, segregation, and bleeding, inappropriate water cement ratio, insufficient mixing time can be easily resolved in the construction site.

Prior to order ready mix concrete, the following points should be taken into consideration :-

01. Grade of Concrete or Mix Design

• Types of work where the concrete will be poured i.e. foundation slab, floor slab, pavements, etc.
• Grade of concrete necessary on site, i.e. M15, M20, M25, M30, etc.
• Slump of concrete both at the batching plant and at the job site.
• The quantity of concrete in cubic meter or cubic yard.
• Address or place of concrete pouring.
• Time of requirement of ready mix concrete on site.
• Time of interval among the two consecutive deliveries of RMC (in the case of higher quantity i.e. exceeding 6 cubic meter).


02. Fly Ash should not be used extra: It is essential to get the proper ratio of fly ash in the concrete. Some RMC producer includes extreme amount of fly ash in concrete which aren’t suggested also by the standards.

Generally, the fly ash is added in concrete at levels which vary from 15% to 25% by mass of the cementitious material component. Plant owner accomplishes this so that the cost is decreased and the profit is raised. So, the purchase should be careful for buying RMC at lower rates, and not get deceived with this lower rates.

It is also essential to get the source of every concrete ingredients (cement, aggregates, admixture, and water), the ratio and quantity of the concrete material per cubic meter, and the types of admixtures applied in RMC. So, prior to give order for ready mix concrete, obtain the above information. i.e. details of mix design from dealer.

03. Source of materials: The RMC dealers buy various concrete materials from diverse sources. The quality of materials may not be always good. So, all the sources should be assessed carefully. If their sources are recognized in the local market for the quality, then the ready-mix dealer can be selected, who will purchase the concrete materials from those renowned sources.

04. Time for Transportation: According to IS 4926:2003, it is recommended to pour the ready mix concrete within 2 hours from the time of loading at the central batching plant. However, a higher period is allowed if retarding admixture is utilized. But, determine the type of retarder used and all steps are followed as suggested by retarding manufacture.

05. Application of Admixture: Sometimes the extra dose of admixture is included at the project site to retrieve the workability of concrete. Some admixtures have chlorides, and if so, it is required to get the amount of chloride content in percentage of the total mass of admixture. If the amount of chloride is increased in ready mix concrete, it will lead to corrosion of the reinforcement steel and the service life of the house or building will be significantly affected. Hence, such admixtures should not be used.

06. Test of Concrete: It is indicated in standards that the ready mix concrete dealers should arrange test facilities at its premises to conduct routine tests, i.e. concrete slump test, concrete cube testing, etc. So, it is possible to double check the workability and strength of ordered concrete.

The workability of concrete can also be verified with slump test on site. Slump of concrete is primarily based on the condition of placement and the requirement of degree of workability. According to IS 456:2000, low reinforced sections like slabs, beams, walls, columns, etc. are casted with the slump of 25 to 75 mm. Heavily reinforced sections like slabs, beams, walls, columns, etc. are casted with the slump of 50 to 100 mm. From slip form work or pumped concrete, the appropriate slump of concrete is 75 to 100mm.

07. Information about Delivery Ticket of Ready Mix Concrete

The information given below, should be providedd in the ready mix concrete delivery ticket for each batch:

• Name and number of the ready-mixed concrete plant.
• Date and serial number of the ticket
• Truck Number
• Name of the purchaser and location of the site
• Grade of concrete
• Mix design details
• Type and size of concrete ingredients and their weight in table format.
• The quantity of concrete in the cubic meter
• Time of loading
• Slump results at the batching plant
• Signature of the concrete plant operator


The information given below, is required to be filled on ready mix concrete ticket on site.

• Time of arrival on site
• The time when discharge was completed
• Any water/admixture added on site
• Location of pouring of concrete
• Slump test result at the site
• Signature of RMC receiver


Some vital points to be remembered before purchasing ready mix concrete

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, November 5, 2018

How leftover concrete casting structures are used to reduce project cost

In high-rise building projects, the construction materials significantly contribute to find out the value of a project, the profit and loss of the project, even in the acceleration of the project's time.

Concrete is the prime material that is frequently utilized in multilevel projects as it is user-friendly, strong, and cost-effective.

The concrete that is utilized recurrently wasted in the process because of several errors in the execution of casting. The factors that influence the wasting of The ready mix concrete is wasted due to several factors like miscalculations / calculations in the job site, impaired equipment, awful weather, as well as inaccurate application processes.

Given below, some useful guidelines to utilize the remaining concrete casting structures so that the expenditure of a project is reduced significantly.

Utilized as a practical column or precast lintel beam.

In some big projects, practical columns or lintel beams on the wall installation work already apply precast methods. Generally, the concrete applied is instant concrete with K-225 or K-250. It is suggested that the residual structural casting concrete should be employed to minimize the waste of concrete and purchase instant concrete.

Utilized as Cansteen: Cansteen stands for edge of the pedestrian, the sidewalk, the separator, the edge of the road, the park, the boulevard, and so on. It acts as a booster for the road. Normally, cansteen is budgeted in BQ ordering finished products just by precast. The leftover structural casting concrete is utilized as a cansteen to reduce the budget.

Utilized as a Car Stoper: Car stopper belongs to the embankment in the safety parking area for providing to stop any car. Different types of materials like iron pipes, concrete and rubber are normally applied as car stopper.

Utilized as Paving Block: Paving blocks usually applied as outdoor parking areas, jogging tracks, parks, sidewalks, home yards and pedestrians are made precast with the rest of the concrete casting structure.

Some of the application of the remaining concrete casting structure which if employed can minimize project costs should be carefully examined and controlled effectively in the arrangement of the material as without that it will confine the project loading dock area that impacts the disruption of work execution.

How leftover concrete casting structures are used to reduce project cost

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Saturday, November 3, 2018

How to measure the land area for irregular & large land tracts

Various types of surveying methods are used for conducting survey of irregular and large land tracts. Some methods are easily understandable and based on elementary geometry, others are complicated and may contain GPS and satellite imagery.

In this article, useful information is given on various options and technologies accessible to the surveyor.

The calculation should be done for Land for different purposes like prior to purchase, while performing stock taking, erecting a boundary wall, controversy with a neighbor over demarcation, etc. Making calculation for regular land area is simple since they contain mostly rectangle or other geometrical shapes. Recalling geometry studied in High School we can do the measurements and arrive at the results. But, the process becomes difficult for measurement, if the area of land is extremely irregularly shaped or large tracts of land are purchased like a farm measuring miles across.

In this article, you will be familiar with some self-reliant methods of calculating your land and some high technology solutions.

Given below, some useful methods for measuring the land with simple geometry, maps and planimeter, GPS, Aerial photography, Satellite imagery, Google earth, maps and graphs, measuring wheels.

Geometric Method: Under this method the odd shaped plot is surveyed and plotted over graph paper. The area of the plot is then subdivided into geometric figures and the areas of these figures are measured with formulae.

Initially, the greater size geomatric figure that can be perfectly drawn in the map is created and after that smaller shapes are produced unless the complete space is captured more or less.

Once the computation for areas of these figures is done, then these are added to determine the total area.

As for instance:
Area of Rectangle: Length x Breadth
Area of Square: Length x Length
Area of Triangle: 0.5 x Base x Height
Area of Trapezium: 0.5 x (Length 1 + Length 2) x Height
The above formulas are used to find out the exact area.


Planimeter on Map: Planimeter is a small gadget that is utilized for working out the areas of a graphically represented planar region. The planimeter can calculate all regular and irregular shapes. It is required to pivot it at any point and then run the end pin all over the perimeter of the area to be calculated. It contains a compliant linkage that facilitates it to move devoid of any effort in all directions.

How to measure the land area for irregular & large land tracts

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, November 2, 2018

Dewatering system at job site

Dewatering refers to a method that is applied to extract groundwater confined inside the soil of the construction site to make the foundation long-lasting.

Under this method, the water is released through storm drains, municipal sewer system and irrigation purposes.

The following methods are mostly used for dewatering :-

1. Open dewatering
2. Well point dewatering
3. Deep well dewatering
4. General sump pumping


Open dewatering system: It allows one to reduce the ground water table adequately in cohesive and low penetrable soils. Water is drained directly from sumps (ditches) along the toes of the slopes from the excavation works.

Well point dewatering system: It is performed by gravity or vacuum. This system allows one to reduce the ground water table adequately for deep and large construction. The water from high penetrable soils is drained from well points, set up along the trench of the site.

Deep well dewatering: This system allows one to reduce the groundwater table to substantial depth. A submersible pump is set up at the bottom of the well with casing containing a minimum 150 mm dia. The discharge pipes from the submersible pump of a number of adjoining wells are attached to a common delivery main. The water is uplifted from the well with the help of multi-staged pump.

General sump pumping: Sump pumps are suitable where excess water is drained from a specific area. They usually rest in a basin or sump that accumulates this excess water. This classification contains bilge and ballast pumps, centrifugal pumps, cantilever pumps, sewage pumps, submersible sump pumps and utility pumps.

To get more details, go through the following article www.learntocivilfield.com

Dewatering system at job site

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, November 1, 2018

Some useful guidelines to work out the dry volume of mortar

The dry volume of mortar is measured for determining the quantity of cement and sand for the formation of mortar for our masonry work.

In recent times, cement mortar is frequently utilized for different types of masonry work.

While making estimate of the volume of mortar for various types of masonry works, only the wet volume is obtained. In order to find out the necessary volume for cement and sand, the wet volume of mortar should be changed into the dry volume.

The Dry Volume of Mortar
The prime components of mortar are cement and sand.


The mortar is formed with the inclusion of water to the dry mix of cement-sand.

After adding the water to the dry mix of cement-sand, the volume of dry mix is decreased because of the existence of air voids in sand particles.

Since the volume of mortar is raised in dry conditions, it is required to multiply the wet volume with 1.30 to obtain the dry volume of mortar.

How to work out the volume of cement and sand in mortar.

Suppose, 10 cubic feet wet mortar is required and the proportion of cement and sand in the mortar is 1:4.

Given below, the detail process to work out the dry volume mortar and then sand and cement quantity for this 10 cubic feet mortar.

How to work out the dry volume of mortar
It is known that the dry volume of mortar is,
= Wet volume of mortar x 1.30
=10 x 1.30
=13.00 cubic feet.


The process for measuring cement and sand volume in mortar

The proportion of cement and sand in mortar is 1:4. It means one unit of cement will be blended with four units of sand.

Total units of elements in mortar are 1+4=5.
Therefore, the necessary volume of sand for the projected mortar quantity is,
= (13.00 ÷ 5) × 4
= 10.40 cubic feet.


Categories of chains applied in surveying:

And necessary cement quantity is,
= (13.00 ÷5) x 1
= 2.60 cubic feet.


Conclusion: To measure the dry volume of mortar, it is required to calculate the wet volume of mortar for your work item and then multiply that wet volume by 1.30.

As soon as you obtain the required dry volume of mortar, then it is possible to compute the required cement and sand quantity for the mortar on the basis of the mix proportion.

Some useful guidelines to work out the dry volume of mortar

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Some vital definitions in surveying

Surveying is the art to create horizontal measurements for finding out the relative position of several objects on the surface of the earth.

Objective of surveying - To work from the whole to the part, To determine the new station by minimum two methods

Categorization of surveying:

1. Geodetic surveying: It is also known as trigonometrically surveying. In this type of surveying, the curvature of the earth is taken into consideration. It handles long distance and large area. The joining line in earth is curved and develops arc of a two point great circle.

2. Plane surveying: Plane surveying handles small area and short distances. The curvature is the earth and it is not taken into consideration. The line that is attached in two points in earth surface is considered as a straight line. Geodetic surveying is more accurate with regard to plane surveying.

Classification of surveying on the basis of instruments applied:

a. Chain survey
b. Compass survey
c. Theodolite survey
d. Plane table survey

e. Tachometric survey
f. Photographic survey
g. Aerial survey


Categorization of scales:

a. Plain scales
b. Diagonal scale
c. Comparative scale
d. Vernier scale


Well conditioned triangle: It is described as there is no include angle is under 30 and more than 120. Equilateral triangle is the superior conditioned triangle.

Jargon in chain surveying:

a. Survey station
b. Base line
c. Chain line
d. Tie line
e. Offsets


Categories of chains applied in surveying:

a. Metric chain
b. Non metric chain
c. Gunter’s chain
d. Engineers chain
e. Revenue chain


To get more details, go through the following link www.learntocivilfield.com

Some vital definitions in surveying

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Some useful tips to work out the costs of concrete

While going to estimate the cost of new concrete, different types of variables should be taken into consideration which range from surface prep, formwork, reinforcing materials, and finish work, as well as the cost of the ready-mix concrete.

It will compute the total price of the job. Costs for certain items will differ from location to location or from site to site, but a rough estimate can be obtained with some averaged amounts.

Cost Per Yard of Ready-Mix Concrete: The most vital item should be the price of concrete, whether ready-mix concrete or other concrete material is applied. As soon as the project specifications and job location are defined, get quotes from local ready-mix concrete suppliers.

Concrete pricing is generally quoted per cubic yard or cubic meter (metre). For an average estimating number, it is recommended to apply $77 per cubic yard.

Cost of Concrete Sub-Grade Work: When the concrete is placed over soil, it is required to grade or arrange the surface for the concrete. Pricing for this can contain expenses associated with grading, compacting soil, excavating, trenching, and other components.

As a perfect average, one can apply $65 per hour of work to set up the surface, provided that the surface is in excess of 75 percent leveled and no special work is required to set up the site.

Costs for Extra Sub-Grade or Site Work: When the surface is not leveled, it is required to include expenses for more site work, like excavating and filling with proper material or eliminating a soft spot on the terrain to prepare it for bearing structural loads.

Based on the distance from where the sand or any other suitable fill material will be arranged, it could include over $10 per cubic yard or meter to your estimate. The cost might be incurred for setting up polyurethane plastic or vapor barrier prior to set the concrete.

Cost of Concrete Formwork: Building concrete forms generally demonstrate a vital part of the total cost of concrete work, as it is one of the most labor-intensive features of the job. It is necessary to recognize the type of formwork to be applied, method of installation, and whether you will purchase or rent the form materials. Other related costs may involve a crane or other equipment applied to move the form materials, form release product, re-using form materials, and the cost to repair forms after different applications.

Usually, the cost of the formwork is $1.10 per square foot of the concrete area. This estimate is prepared for a square or rectangular area. The cost of formwork is increased for rounded or contoured concrete.

Cost to Finish Concrete: Concrete prices mainly differ on the basis of the type of finishing provided in the design. Concrete gets finished in various ways like smooth surface, exposed aggregate surface, or stamped concrete finish. Some surfaces need only a strike-off and screed to suitable contour and elevation, while for others surfaces, a broomed, floated, or troweled finish should be provided. To work out finishing in your concrete pricing analysis, you can include $0.75 per square foot or perhaps more, based on the complication of the specified finish. The cost of any curing compound or testing services should also be taken into consideration.

Cost of Concrete Reinforcement: Most concrete comprises of some type of reinforcement, like rebar, wire mesh, plastic mesh, or fiber which should be added to the concrete mix to raise the strength and crack-resistance. Standard reinforcing materials can include roughly $0.18 cents per square foot. This number is higher for large-diameter rebar or other special reinforcement.

Some useful tips to work out the costs of concrete

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, October 29, 2018

Benefits and drawbacks of concrete driveway construction

Concrete driveway construction is more beneficial as compared to conventional driveway construction methods. The concrete driveway is long-lasting.

Given below, the pros and cons of concrete driveway construction.

Benefits of Concrete Driveway Construction - The prime benefits of concrete driveway construction are as follow:

1. Quality Construction
2. Stability
3. Extreme Flexibility
4. Less Maintenance
5. Costs
6. Diverse range of options


1. Quality Construction: The concrete as a driveway material improves the quality of appearance. It offers a clean and professional view.

2. Stability: A concrete driveway that is efficiently constructed and properly preserved can endure for prolonged times. As a robust structural material, concrete can bear heavy traffic loads, corrosion and even other atmospheric vulnerabilities. To ensure long-lasting integrity, the perfect plan should be made for the formation of concrete in terms of mix design and construction joints that is based on the conditions of the site.

3. Offers Extreme Flexibility: The concrete driveways are suitable for different types of landscaping designs, or building layouts. It is recognized for both residential and traffic use.

The use of concrete driveway only improves the beauty of the property. The flexibility is sustained in respect of concrete driveway installation and the design variety it provides.

4. Less Maintenance: Due to extreme stability of concrete driveway, the maintenance work is minimized significantly. Like other pavement options, various problems like weeds, paver shifting etc are not found in concrete driveways. There is little or zero maintenance for concrete driveway.

If any stain is found over the concrete, it can be easily eliminated. It is just necessary to cleanse the surface annually with the use of proper stain cleaner.

The sealants can also be applied in concrete driveway construction to safeguard the surface from stains and other damages.

5. Costs: Here the cost is associated with construction cost and maintenance cost. The initial cost of concrete driveway construction is cheap but it is adjusted with the zero-maintenance cost it offers.

A good concrete driveway constructed can sustain for 20 to 25 years with zero maintenance that yields huge savings in cost in due course of time.

6. Variety of Options: The concrete driveway construction comes with various types of design options. Either a slab look, or paver look (stamped concrete), or polished look (Polished concrete) can be arranged on the basis of the requirement.

Drawbacks of Concrete Driveway Construction - The following drawbacks are found in concrete driveway construction:

1. The application of polished or stamped concrete driveway construction is little bit expensive with regard to the normal concrete driveway construction. To maintain the longevity, special maintenance are essential for these types.

2. It is required to appoint professionals and skilled labors for pouring concrete to driveway construction. The process becomes very complicated when executed as a DIY project.

3. It is suggested to utilize sealants for annual Maintenance so that the concrete driveway slabs last for a long time.

Benefits and drawbacks of concrete driveway construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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