Quantity Take Off or QTO is a well known project estimating company serving to the contractors, home builders, architects, design- build firms and sub contractor trade. We are providing estimating service since 2002 with a great chronicle of success.
In this construction video tutorial, you will learn how to compute quantity of tiles required in building rooms or bathrooms.
Initially, you have to determine the area of the room where the tiles will be placed. Suppose, there is an L-shaped room and it is divided as part A and part B.
Length of room A = 3 meter Breadth of room A = 2 meter Length of room B = 6 meter Breadth of room B = 2 meter
At first, calculate the area of A as follow :- Area = Length x Breadth After putting the above values of room A, we get Area = 3 x 2 = 6 square meter
Then, calculate the area of B as follow :- Area = Length x Breadth After putting the above values of room A, we get Area = 6 x 2 = 12 square meter
Therefore, total area = area of A + area of B = 6 + 12 = 18 square meter Suppose the length of one tile = 600 mm = 0.6 m and breadth = 600 mm = 0.6 m So, area of one tile = length x breadth = 0.6 x 0.6 = 0.36 square meter There, no. of required tiles = Total Area / Area Of One Tile = 18 / 0.36 = 50 Nos. (approx)
The first step in any construction project is to prepare a visual plan for the building. This is called the drawing, a visual representation of the project with dimensions and appropriations so that civil engineers can understand what the architect actually wants them to build.
To make sure there is no misinterpretations, one needs to follow some basic steps to understand the drawing. Here is a brief guide on how to study civil engineering drawings.
Familiarize the Scale
You have to understand exactly how large the objects are going to be in real life from the drawing itself. In a civil engineering drawing, the scale is maintained religiously all throughout the documents.
Generally the scale is 1/4th or 1/8th, but there may be other variations as well. Sometimes one set of plans may contain different scales on different pages if they need to depict very large and small objects at once.
You must be able to understand at a glance the real scale of the object from the drawings.
This is an exclusive excel template that is based on daily work report of the employees. Any person who is self employed or performing as an employee in a company, it is required to maintain day-to-day work reports as well as generate them on daily basis to organize records concerning all the works executed by you throughout working hours.
To prove your worth and ensure that you are a responsible employee to your employer, it is necessary to send report about your work on day-to-day basis as you are completing the works entrusted to you as well sending reporting on it devoid of any delay on a regular basis.
Daily work report means a document of details of work accomplished by you in a day. Either your supervisor, manager or employer inquire you to provide information on what you carry out every day or not, creating a daily work report is a perfect way to keep tracing of the work done by you.
The industrial buildings such as godowns and factory floors are often low rise structures with few or none internal walls. In such buildings, special Care needs to be taken while designing industrial roof trusses, since large spans need to support the entire roofing system without intermittent support. Trusses with roof covering materials make up of the entire roofing assembly here.
What are Trusses? Trusses are triangular formation of metal sections, usually used to span large lengths in space instead of solid girders. The external load apply mostly axial forces on the members in a truss. Depending upon how the force is applied, trusses can be designed in the following two ways:
Plane Trusses: where the external load is placed on the plane of the truss.
Space Trusses: where the external load can be applied to any three-dimensional space within.
How are Trusses Built? Trusses mostly consist of axially loaded members to support loads. The reason for this that when steel members are subjected to axial forces, they perform better in bearing that load, than members that are in flexure. This is because the cross-section of such a system is uniformly stressed under axial forces.
Trusses are very common in most architecture. Mostly used to span long distances, they are well suited to bear the load of single-storey industrial buildings. They can also be designed to bear gravity loads in long span floors. For the same reason they are also mounted to bear loads of long span bridges.
It is essential for the constructors to have good quality material for their building project. Compromises in the quality of construction material can cause severe results leading to serious repercussions. One of the most important materials of a building is the steel reinforcements used in concrete columns, beams, and other structures.
The quality of steel received on site determines the strength of the structure with steel reinforcements inside it; so it is imperative that you check the steel quality right on the project site to ensure that your building will be made out of materials capable of handling the load.
Observations on Steel on Site:
1. Cleanliness: The reinforcements that you receive in the field must be clean ones. Dust, rust, earth, mild scales, paint, oil, grease or any similar coating clinging to the bars is detrimental to the bonding between reinforcement and concrete. Also, these contaminants can cause corrosion in the structure. For this reason, you must make sure that the steel bars and other reinforcements you receive are clean. Point to note: a little rusting on the bars is considered to be helpful in forming better bonds with the concrete. But excessive rusting and/or scaling is absolutely harmful for the building.
2. Manufacturer Marking: The bars should have their steel grade, manufacturer name/logo, brand name, diameter etc should be embossed on themselves. Do check if you have received everything of the same type as you expected.
3. Bending the Bars: When satisfied with the above, proceed to the Bend Test to examine the actual capabilities of the steel you have received on site, under realistic strain.
a. Bend Test: This test should be carried out as per the specifications in IS 1599 and you should use mandrels of size specified in IS 1786. The rebar sample should be bent in 180 degrees, results recorded, and then proceed to bending it 180 degrees.
Sometimes, it is required to move a building from one place to another location. This can be required for a number of reasons, like change of land, replanning of facility or even natural causes. In such situations, a process called Structure Relocation comes into play.
Relocation of a structure essentially involves three steps. The first is to disassemble the existing structure - you need to tear the building down systematically, preserving as much material and objects as you can. The second step is transporting the disassembled building blocks to the intended target location.
This may need the involvement of heavy transport support if the location is far away. Of course, if the location is within the same property then this step reduces next to zero. The last and the most important step is to reassemble the building back again at the target location using the same building blocks from the previous structure and maybe some extra materials.
Sometimes if the building is small enough and light enough, it can be picked up as a whole and transported to the new location with minimal disassembly and reconstruction necessary. If the move is within the same piece of property, the move can be done by rolling it on temporary rails or rollers. For long distance moves, generally heavy-duty flatbed trucks are used. Though in that case many complications may arise on the way, like roadside obstacles like narrow zones, and overhead obstacles like low-hanging branches and cables.
Columns are essential support structures that are almost inevitably used in any construction projects. From ancient times, columns have been an indispensable part of erecting buildings, them being one of the most important load-bearing members. Obviously, one needs to be careful while designing such important structures.
As per the construction sciences and technologies, there are many rules applicable to specific columnar structures. However, there are some few basic rules of column designing that all engineers can keep in mind while designing most types of columns and similar vertical supports.
Today, we will discuss these important thumb rules of column design in this article. Needless to say, columns need to be designed keeping in mind the total amount of forces acting on the structure. But also, keeping these basic guidelines in mind can prevent architects and engineers from making silly mistakes.
Rule 1: Essentially, the size of the columns would depend upon the total amount of forces acting on the column. In short you can consider this as the total load on a column. This will make or break the column, so you need to be ensuring that your columns design can withhold this entire load and anything else that may come later.
That is, the total load on a column may be not only the weight of the structure that it bears, but also the movable materials that structure will bear. For example, while designing a multi-storied godown, you will need to care about not only the weight of the floor and the walls and the roof, but more also, the weight of the goods that are going to be stored on that floor. This can get pretty great in case of solid materials.